Aerosol filtration in fibrous filters is one of the principal methods of accurate removal of particulate matter from a stream of gas. The classical theory of depth filtration of aerosol particles in fibrous structures is based on the assumption of existing single fibre efficiency, which may be used to recalculate the overall efficiency of entire filter. Using “classical theory” of filtration one may introduce some errors, leading finally to a discrepancy between theory and experiment. There are several reasons for inappropriate estimation of the single fibre efficiency: i) neglecting of shortrange interactions, ii) separation of inertial and Brownian effects, ii) perfect adhesion of particles to the fibre, iv) assumption of perfect mixing of aerosol particles in the gas stream, v) assumption of negligible effect of the presence of neighbouring fibres and vi) assumption of perpendicular orientation of homogenous fibres in the filtration structure. Generally speaking, “classical theory” of filtration was used for characterization of the steady - state filtration process (filtration in a clean filter, at the beginning of the process) without deeper investigation of the influence of the nternal structure of the filter on its performance. The aim of this review is to outline and discuss the progress of deep-bed filtration modelling from the use of simple empirical correlations to advanced techniques of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Digital Fluid Dynamics.
Deep bed filtration is an effective method of submicron and micron particle removal from the fluid stream. There is an extensive body of literature regarding particle deposition in filters, often using the classical continuum approach. However, the approach is not convenient for studying the influence of particle deposition on filter performance (filtration efficiency, pressure drop) when non-steady state boundary conditions have to be introduced. For the purposes of this work the lattice-Boltzmann model describes fluid dynamics, while the solid particle motion is modeled by the Brownian dynamics. For aggregates the effect of their structure on displacement is taken into account. The possibility of particles rebound from the surface of collector or reentrainment of deposits to fluid stream is calculated by energy balanced oscillatory model derived from adhesion theory. The results show the evolution of filtration efficiency and pressure drop of filters with different internal structure described by the size of pores. The size of resuspended aggregates and volume distribution of deposits in filter were also analyzed. The model enables prediction of dynamic filter behavior. It can be a very useful tool for designing filter structures which optimize maximum lifetime with the acceptable values of filtration efficiency and pressure drop.
A microstructural model of Red Blood Cell (RBC) behaviour was proposed. The erythrocyte is treated as a viscoelastic object, which is denoted by a network of virtual particles connected by elastic springs and dampers (Kelvin-Voigt model). The RBC is submerged in plasma modelled by lattice Boltzmann fluid. Fluid – structure interactions are taken into account. The simulations of RBC behaviour during flow in a microchannel and wall impact were performed. The results of RBC deformation during the flow are in good agreement with experimental data. The calculations of erythrocyte disaggregation from the capillary surface show the impact of RBC structure stiffness on the process.
The motion of submicron particles involves the deterministic terms resulting from the aerodynamic convection and/or electrostatic attraction, and the stochastic term from the thermal displacement of particles. The Langevin equation describes such behavior. The Brownian dynamics algorithm was used for integration of the Langevin equation for the calculation of the single fiber deposition efficiency. Additionally the deterministic and stochastic of the particle motion were derived, using the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches of particle movement and balance, for the calculation of the single fiber deposition efficiency due to both mechanisms separately. Combination of the obtained results allows us for calculation of the coupling effect of inertia and interception with the Brownian diffusion in a form of correlation. The results of calculation show that the omitting of the coupling effect of particular mechanism and using the simple additive rule for determination of the single fiber deposition efficiency introduces significant error, especially for particles with diameter below 300 nm.