As part of the presented work, tests were carried out to check the possibility of replacing of conventional reducers used in the lead pyrometallurgical processes by cheaper, but equally effective substitutes. For research of lead oxide reduction, the following fine-grained carbonaceous materials were used, ie anthracite dust and coal flotation concentrate, as well as traditional used coke breeze for comparison. The obtained test results indicate a similar ability to reduce the lead oxide of all studied carbonaceous materials.
Ceramic injection moulding and gas pressure infiltration were employed for the manufacturing of alumina/AlSi10Mg composites. Porous ceramic preforms were prepared by mixing alumina powder with a multi-binder system and injection moulding of the powder polymer slurry. Then, the organic part was removed through a combination of solvent and thermal debinding, and the materials were finally sintered at different temperatures. The ceramic preforms manufactured in this way were infiltrated by an AlSi10Mg alloy. The microstructure and properties of the manufactured materials were examined using scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry and bending strength testing. The results of transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations show that the fabricated composite materials are characterised by the percolation type of the microstructure and a lack of unfilled pores with good cohesion at the metal-ceramic interfaces. This is surprising considering that over 30% of the pores are smaller than 1 μm. The results show that the bending strength of the obtained composites decreased with increasing sintering temperature of the porous preforms.
The current study were performed in order to assess the fabrication possibility of the metal-ceramic composites based on nanocrystalline substrates. The influence of the variable time of the high energy ball-milling (10, 30 and 50 h) on the structure, pores morphology and microhardness of Ti/ZrO2 and Ti/Al2O3 compositions was studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the composite formation for all milling times and sintering in the case of Ti/ZrO2 system. Decomposition of substrates during milling process of Ti/Al2O3 system was also observed. Additionally, the changes of lattice parameter as a function of milling time were studied. The morphology of powders and the microstructure of the sintered samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, analysis of microhardness and pores structure were performed.
This paper presents the study of microstructure and properties of 8 mol% yttrium stabilized zirconia coating fabricated by Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition technique on commercial pure titanium. The coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscope, profilometer, nanoindentation and nanomachining tests. The X-ray phase analysis exhibit the tetragonal Zr0.935Y0.065O1.968, TiO and α-Ti phases. The Rietveld refinement technique were indicated the changes of crystal structure of the produced coatings. The characteristic structure of columns were observed in High Resolutions Scanning Electron Microscopy. Moreover, the obtained coating had various development of surfaces, thickness was equal to 3.1(1) µm and roughness 0.40(7) µm. Furthermore, the production coatings did not show microcracks, delamination and crumbing. The performed experiment encourages carried out us to tests for osseointegration.
The main purpose of this study was to identify the mineral composition of soil sample taken from the upper layer of topsoil. High absorption of chemical substance is a characteristic for humus-organic layer of topsoil. The source of those substance could be a pollutant emitted to the atmosphere by human activity. The research area includes Upper Silesia region, which is the most industrial region of Poland. In the present study, the phase composition of the top soil separates were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of seven mineral phases in the material magnetic separated by lower current (quartz, illite, kaolinite, Fe3+ oxides, hematite, magnetite and pyrite). In case of higher current were identified four phases (quartz, muscovite, kaolinite and K0.94 Na0.06(AlSi3O8)). Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for an extensive analysis of iron-containing phases (pyrrhotite, magnetite, aluminosilicate oxides with Fe3+ and kaolinite/Fe2+ silicate).