In the present work, amine based extractant and its mixture with cationic and solvating extractants were tested for the extraction of HCl from chloride solution containing Al(III). The chloride feed solution resulted from the leaching of spent HDS (hydro-desulfurization) catalysts. For this purpose, amine extractants, such as TOA (trioctyl amine), Alamine 336 (a mixture of tri-octyl/decyl amine), Alamine 308 (tri-isooctyl amine), and TEHA (tri 2-ethylhexyl amine) were used and the extraction and stripping behavior of HCl was compared. The extracted HCl was easily stripped from loaded TEHA phase, when compared with the other tested tertiary amine system. Solvent extraction reaction of HCl by TEHA was determined from the extraction data. Unlike TOA and Alamine 336, adding cationic extractant to TEHA had negligible effect on the extraction and stripping of HCl. In our experimental ranges, no Al was extracted by amines and pure HCl was recovered. MaCabe- Thiele diagrams for the extraction and stripping of HCl by TEHA were constructed.
The effects of carbon content on the austenite stability and strain-induced transformation of nanocrystalline Fe-11% Ni alloys were investigated using X-ray analysis and mechanical tests. The nanocrystalline FeNiC alloy samples were rapidly fabricated using spark plasma sintering because of the extremely short densification time, which not only helped attain the theoretical density value but also prevented grain growth. The increased austenite stability resulted from nanosized crystallites in the sintered alloys. Increasing compressive deformation increased the volume fraction of strain-induced martensite from austenite decomposition. The kinetics of the strain-induced martensite formation were evaluated using an empirical equation considering the austenite stability factor. As the carbon content increased, the austenite stability was enhanced, contributing to not only a higher volume fraction of austenite after sintering, but also to the suppression of its strain-induced martensite transformation.