In the family of iron-based alloys, ductile iron enjoys the highest rate of development, finding application in various industries. Ductile iron or the cast iron with spheroidal graphite can be manufactured by various methods. One of them is the Inmold spheroidization process characterized by different technological solutions, developed mainly to increase the process efficiency. So far, however, none of the solutions has been based on the use of a reactor made outside the casting mould cavity. The method of spheroidization inside the casting mould using a reaction chamber developed at the Foundry Research Institute is an innovative way of cast iron treatment. The innovative character of this method consists in the use of properly designed and manufactured reactor placed in the casting mould cavity. Owing to this solution, the Inmold process can be carried out in moulds with both horizontal and vertical parting plane. The study presents the results of examinations of the microstructure of graphite precipitates and metal matrix of castings after spheroidization carried out by the Inmold process using a reactor and mould with vertical parting plane. Special pattern assembly was made for the tests to reproduce plates with wall thicknesses of 3; 5; 7; 10; 20 and 30 mm. The content of residual magnesium was determined for all tested castings, while for castings of plates with a wall thickness equal to or larger than 10 mm, testing of mechanical properties was additionally performed.
The ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and watersoluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal, while the casting is still solidifying, the mould destruction (washing out, erosion) takes place using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. The following paper focuses on the selection of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate technologies for moulds devoted to the ablation casting of aluminum alloys. It has been proposed to use different types of moulding sands with a water-soluble binder, which is hydrated sodium silicate. The authors showed that the best kind of moulding sands for moulds for Al alloy casting will be moulding sands hardened with physical factors – through dehydration. The use of microwave hardened moulding sands and moulding sands made in hot-box technology has been proposed. The tests were carried out on moulding sands with different types of modified binder and various inorganic additives. The paper compares viscosity of different binders used in the research and thermal degradation of moulding sands with tested binders. The paper analyzes the influence of hardening time periods on bending strength of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate prepared in hot-box technology. The analysis of literature data and own research have shown that molding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties for the ablation foundry of Al alloys.
The results of mechanical reclamation of waste moulding sands with furfuryl resin and activators of new generation are presented. The aim of the research described in this study was to determine what effect the addition of reclaim obtained in the process of dry mechanical reclamation could have on the properties of furan sands. The sand supplied by one of the domestic foundries was after the initial reclamation subjected to a two-step proper reclamation process. The following tests were carried out on the obtained reclaim: pH, S and N content, loss on ignition and comprehensive sieve analysis. The obtained reclaim was next used as a component of moulding sands with furfuryl resin, wherein it formed 50% and 80% of the base moulding material, respectively. The strength properties of the ready sand mixtures (bending strength Rg u and tensile strength Rm u ) were determined after the hardening time of 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 24 hours.
The results of testing the strength properties of experimental ceramic materials containing spending moulding sand after initial mechanical reclamation as a material for subsequent layers of the stucco composition were presented. Tests were carried out on spent moulding sands from various foundry technologies, i.e. sand with furfuryl resin and sand with hydrated sodium silicate. The spent, agglomerated moulding sand has undergone a crushing process. Next, the required granular fractions used for individual layers of the stucco material were separated. Ceramic samples, in which the spent moulding sand was a substitute for fresh silica sand in successive layers of the stucco composition, were prepared. As a reference material, identical ceramic samples were used but with all layers made from the fresh silica sand. Samples prepared in this way were used to determine the bending strength of ceramic materials in the temperature range from 20 to 900ºC. The obtained values of the bending strength have demonstrated that spent moulding sand can be used in investment casting with no adverse effect on the strength of ceramic materials.
The essence of ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and a watersoluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal, while the casting is still solidifying, the mould destruction (washing out, erosion) takes place using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. This paper focuses on the selection of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate for moulds used in the ablation casting. The research is based on the use of Cordis binder produced by the Hüttenes-Albertus Company. It is a new-generation inorganic binder based on hydrated sodium silicate. Its hardening takes place under the effect of high temperature. As part of the research, loose moulding mixtures based on the silica sand with different content of Cordis binder and special Anorgit additive were prepared. The reference material was sand mixture without the additive. The review of literature data and the results of own studies have shown that moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties to be used in the ablation casting process. Additionally, at the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow, preliminary semi-industrial tests were carried out on the use of Cordis sand technology in the manufacture of moulds for ablation casting. The possibility to use these sand mixtures has been confirmed in terms of both casting surface quality and sand reclamation.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using moulds made from the environmentally friendly sands with hydrated sodium silicate in modified ablation casting. The ablation casting technology is primarily intended for castings with diversified wall thickness and complex shapes made in sand moulds. The article presents the effect of binder content and hardening time on the bending strength Rg u of moulding sands with binders based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened by microwave technology. The aim of the research was to develop an optimal sand composition that would provide the strength necessary to make a mould capable of withstanding the modified ablation casting process. At the same time, the sand composition should guarantee the susceptibility of the mould to the destructive action of the ablation medium, which in this case is water. Tests have shown that microwave hardening provides satisfactory moulds’ strength properties even at a low binder content in the sand mixture.
The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of used sands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determined dimensions and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in 50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands. The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W), shatter test of granules (Wz) performed directly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined. Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm. For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition of water-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out. The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of moulding sands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.
A technology of sands with water glass hardened by liquid esters is a cheap and ecologic method of producing moulding sands. Due to these advantages, this technology is still very important in several foundry plants for production of heavy iron and steel castings. Reclamation of the mixed moulding and core sands generates significant amounts of dusts, which require further treatments for their reuse. The results of investigations of a pressureless granulation of dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of the mixture consisting in app. 90 % of moulding sands from the Floster S technology and in 10 % of core sands with phenolic resin resol type, are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were aimed at obtaining granulates of the determined dimensional and strength parameters. Granules were formed from the mixture of dusts consisting of 75 mass% of dusts after the reclamation of sands mixture and of 25 mass% of dusts from bentonite sands processing plant. Wetted dusts from bentonite sands were used as a binding agent allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts originated from the mixed sands technology.
The presented in the paper investigations were aimed at the determination of the reclaimed material (obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation process) addition influence on properties of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate modified by colloidal suspension of zinc oxide nanoparticles in propanol. Nanoparticles originated from the thermal decomposition of alkaline zinc carbonate, were used. The results of the reclamation of the spent moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate performed in the AT-2 testing reclaimer are presented in the paper. Both, spent sands from the Floster S technology and from the technology with the modified water-glass were subjected to the reclamation processes. The following determinations of the reclaimed material were performed: pH reaction, acid demand, ignition loss and Na2O content. The obtained reclaim was used as a matrix component of moulding sands with water-glass in the Floster S technology, in which it constituted 60% and 50% of the sand matrix. The strength properties of the prepared moulding sands were determined (bending strength Rg u , tensile strength Rm u ) after samples storing times: 1h, 2h, 4h and 24 hours.
The effectiveness of cast iron spheroidization with FeSiMg master alloy by the traditional method and using a reaction chamber placed in the cavity of foundry mould was compared. The method of cast iron treatment in mould cavity using a reaction chamber is an innovative technology developed by the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow. The effectiveness of the spheroidization process carried out by both methods was checked on a series of test castings. The article also presents the results of metallographic examinations and mechanical testing, including the discussion of magnesium yield and its assimilation rate.
The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of a new product added to water glass-containing foundry sands hardened with ethylene glycol diacetate. The new additive designated by the symbol "B" is a composition of aqueous solutions of modified polyalcohols, improving the sand knocking out properties. The scope of studies included testing various mechanical and technological properties of foundry sand mixtures, such as permeability, friability, life cycle of cores and knocking out properties. In the technological studies, two types of water glass with different values of the silica modulus and density, designated as R145 and R150, were used. Moulding sands were prepared with the additive "B". For comparison, reference sands with water glass but without the additive "B" were also made. In Part I of the article, the results of studies of the effect of additive "B" on the properties of foundry sands with water glass hardened by CO2 blowing were discussed.