Heavy steel castings deoxidized with aluminium are sometimes brittle intercrystalline failed during their service along primary grain boundaries what is initiated by aluminium nitrides and so called conchoidal fractures are formed. The tendency to forming the conchoidal fractures depends in particular on cooling rate (the casting modulus), aluminium and nitrogen contents in steel. During deoxidation, when manufacturing heavy castings, the elements with high affinity to nitrogen, zirconium or titanium, are added to steel that would decrease nitrogen activity by the bond on stable nitrides. The formation of stable nitrides should reduce the tendency of steel to the formation of conchoidal fractures. Deoxidation was thermodynamically analyzed at presence of the mentioned elements. For particular conditions a probable course of deoxidation was estimated at test castings. The deoxidation course was checked by microanalysis of deoxidation products (inclusions). For service and experimental castings the anticipated composition of inclusions was compared. It has been proved that in heavy castings with high aluminium contents in steel under studied conditions neither the addition of zirconium nor of titanium nor of rare earth metals will prevent the formation of conchoidal fractures.
Mechanical properties of an Al-alloy die casting depend significantly on its structural properties. Porosity in Al-alloy castings is one of the most frequent causes of waste castings. Gas pores are responsible for impaired mechanical-technological properties of cast materials. On the basis of a complex evaluation of experiments conducted on AlSi9Cu3 alloy samples taken from the upper engine block which was diecast with and without local squeeze casting it can be said that castings manufactured without squeeze casting exhibit maximum porosity in the longitudinal section. The area without local squeeze casting exhibits a certain reduction in mechanical properties and porosity increased to as much as 5%. However, this still meets the norms set by SKODA AUTO a.s.
The research was concerned with the influence of chemical composition of austenitic steels on their mechanical properties. Resulting properties of castings from austenitic steels are significantly influenced by the solidification time that affects the size of the primary grain as well as the layout of elements within the dendrite and its parts with regard to the last solidification points in the interdendritic melt. During solidification an intensive segregation of all admixtures occurs in the melt, which causes a whole range of serious metallurgical defects and it has also a significant influence on subsequent precipitation of carbides and intermetallic phases. Chemical heterogeneity then affects the structure and mechanical properties of the casting. In a planned experiment, we cast melted steels containing 18 to 28 % Cr and 8 to 28 % Ni with variable carbon and nitrogen contents. Testing the tensile strength of the cast specimens we could determine the Rp0.2, Rm, and A5 values. The dependence of the mechanical properties on the chemical content was described by regression equations. The planned experiment results allow us to control the chemical content for the given austenitic steel quality to achieve the required values of the mechanical properties.