The purpose of the paper is the attempt to point one of the most important aspects of the cultural contact of the Poland and Arabic countries with the consideration of the historical perspective. The author assumes that the language is the basic carrier of such contacts and also the main area of the mutual influences. Therefore, she discusses the Arabic and Polish relations mostly on the level of the translation of the literary and scientific output of both sides, as well as the linguistic interference mainly in the aspect of the lexical borrowings. The author quotes many examples of such linguistic contacts and underlines their great meaning in the existence and development of other types of relations: political, commercial, and cultural.
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is an important factor used to measure water pollution. This article reviews recent developments of microbial biosensors with respect to their applications for low BOD estimation. Four main methods to measure BOD using a biosensor are described: microbial fuel cells, optical methods, oxygen electrode based methods and mediator-based methods. Each of them is based on different principles, thus a different approach is required to improve the limit of detection. A proper choice of microorganisms used in the biosensor construction and/or sample pre-treatment processes is also essential to improve the BOD lower detection limit.