The article presents current methods used for the recovery of metals from used electronic equipment. The analysis of the composition and structure of the material was made on the example of one of the most popular and widespread e-waste – used cell phones. The article was address the problems of processing and separation of individual components included in these heterogeneous wastes. The main purpose of the conducted research was to prepare the tested material in such a way that the recovery of metals in the further stages of its processing was as effective as possible.The results of attempts to separate individual material fractions with magnetic, pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods will be presented. An analysis of the possibilities of managing electronic waste in terms of the circular economy will be made.
Catalytic converters contain the catalytic substance in their structure, which is a mixture of Platinum Group Metals (PGMs). The prices of these metals and a growing demand for them in the market, make it necessary to recycle spent catalytic converters and recovery of PGMs. In the study, the effect of ozone and hydrogen peroxide application on the possibility of extracting PGM from used car catalysts was investigated. The catalytic carrier was milled, sieved and then the fractions with the desired grain size were treated with the appropriate HCl mixture and 3%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% H2O2, respectively, and the tests were also carried out at temperature 333 K. Ozone tests were conducted with the O3 flow in the range of 1,3,5 g/h. Samples for analysis were collected after 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and after 4 h, respectively. The residue after the experiments and filtration process was also analysed. The obtained results confirmed the assumption that PGMs can be extracted using hydrochloric acid with the addition of H2O2 or ozone as oxidants. It allows to significantly intensify the carried out reactions and to improve the rate of PGMs transfer to the solution.
New technologies and the globalization of the electrical and electronic equipment market cause a continuous increase in the amount of electrical and electronic waste. They constitute one of the waste groups that grows the fastest in quantity. The development of the new generation of electrical and electronic devices is much faster than before. Recently attention has been concentrated on hydrometallurgical methods for the recovery of metals from electronic waste. In this article the role of an oxidizing agent, mainly ozone and hydrogen peroxide was presented in hydrometallurgical processes. Leaching process of printed circuits boards (PCBs) from used cell phones was conducted. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid and ozone as an oxidizing agent for various temperatures, acid concentration, ozone concentration. As a result, the concentrations of copper, zinc, iron and aluminum in the obtained solution were measured. The obtained results were compared to results obtained earlier in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent and discussed.
Three plants extracts were used for biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs). AgNPs nucleation process requires effective reduction agents which secure Ag+ to Ag0 reduction and also stabilizing/capping agents. The UV-vis and TEM observation revealed that the best results were obtained by R. officinalis leaf extract. The strong SPR band peak appeared at the wavelength 418 nm. Synthetized AgNPs were globular, fine (~20 nm), uniform and stabile throughout the experiment. A rapid rate of AgNPs synthesis was also significant and economically advantageous factor. Fine (10-20 nm) and globular nanoparticles were synthetized also by U. dioica leaf extract, but the stability of nanoparticles was not permanent. Despite V. vitis-idaea fruit extract contains a lot of reducing agents, UV-vis did not confirm the presence of AgNPs in solution. Synthetized Ag particles were very unstable, Ag particles agglomerated very fast and clearly indicated sediment was formed.