Production of castings, like any other field of technology is aimed at providing high-quality product, free from defects. One of the main causes of defects in castings is the phenomenon of shrinkage of the casting. This phenomenon causes the formation of shrinkage cavities and porosity in the casting. The major preventive measure is supplementing a shortage of liquid metal. For supplement to be effective, it is necessary to use risers in proper shapes. Usually, the risers are selected on the basis of determination the place of formation of hot-spots in the castings. Although in these places the shrinkage defects are most likely to occur, shape and size of these defects are also affected by other factors. The article describes the original program setting out the shape and location of possible cavities in the casting. In the program is also taken into account the effect of temperature on the change in volume of liquid metal and the resultant differences in the shape and size of formed shrinkage cavities. The aim of the article is to describe the influence that have material properties of the mold on the simulation results.
The paper presents the results of the computer simulations of solidification with consideration of the liquid phase movement. Simulations were conducted in a real, complex cast. There is a multi-stage resolution to the problem of convection in solidification simulations. The most important resolution concerns the development of the numerical model with the momentum and continuity equations, as well as conditions which are determined by the convection. Simulations were carried out with the use of our authorial software based on stabilized finite elements method (Petroy-Galerkin). In order to solve Navier-Stokes equation (with the convection element), Boussinesq’s approximation were used. Finite Elements Method (FEM) was responsible for the solidification. FEM is close to the heat conduction equation solution (with the internal heat source responsible for the heat released during phase transformation). Convection causes movement in the liquid phase in the solidifying cast and can significantly influence the process of heat transfer from the cast. It may change the distribution of the defects. Results of this article make it possible to assess the conditions in which the influence of the convection on solidification is significant.