The paper presents the least admissible dimensions of black lines of spatial object images, according to Saliszczew, adjusted to the needs of database generalization. It is pointed out, that the adjusted dimensions are in agreement with the cartographic norm included in the National Map Accuracy Standards , and their application to the generalization 1 will allow, for any map scale, the determination of the: • value of the scale-dependent parameter of the generalization process, without user action; • measure of recognizability of the shortest black line section on the map, what helps to obtain unique results of line generalization; • measure of recognizability of black lines in the image – using a standard (elementary triangle) – helpful in obtaining unique result of line simplification, and an assessment of the process; • recognizability distance between lines of close buildings, securing unique aggregation of them; • verification of spatial object image lines visualization. The new solutions were tested with the Douglas-Peucker (1973) generalization algorithm, modified by the author, which treats the minimal dimensions as geometric attributes, while object classes and their data hierarchy as descriptive attributes. This approach secures uniqueness of results on any level of generalization process, in which data of spatial objects in the DLM model are transformed to conform with the requirements for the DCM model data.
The photoacoustic cell is the heart of the nondestructive photoacoustic method. This article presents a new simple lumped-components CRLC model of the Helmholtz type photoacoustic cell. This model has been compared with the well known literature models describing the Helmholtz type cells for photoacoustic spectroscopy. Experimental amplitude and phase frequency data obtained for the two photoacoustic cells have been presented and interpreted in a series of models. Results of the fitting of theoretical curves, obtained in these models, to the experimental data have been shown and discussed.
This paper presents maps of spatial distributions of the short circuit current Isc(x,y) and the open circuit voltage Uoc(x,y) of the investigated low cost solar cells. Visible differences in values of these parameters were explained by differences in the serial and shunt resistances determined for different points of solar cells from measurements of I–V characteristics. The spectral dependence of the photo voltage of solar cell is also shown, discussed and interpreted in the model of amorphous and crystal silicon.
The paper refers to pulverization and sintering of the (Fe80Nb6B14)0.88Tb0.12 high coercive alloy. The powder was sintered using the ultra-fast current aided method. It turned out that too long discharge time leads to appearing of a soft magnetic phase and simultaneously, decrease in coercivity of the compacted powder. Nevertheless, it was possible to establish preference technology parameters, preserving magnetic hardness of the alloy. As a final test, an impact of Co-powder addition on magnetic properties was studied. The introduced soft magnetic phase (about 20 wt. %) caused about 30% increase of magnetic remanence, which is a result of direct exchange interactions between the two phases.