In 1949 the first book of the Atlas of Polish Traditional Costumes series appeared. Józef Gajek was the one who initiated the series, published by Polish Folk Association to this day. He was associated with Polish Ethnographic Atlas, which had a great impact on the character of the series. Its main objective was to describe Polish traditional costumes according to particular regions. Janusz Kamocki and Barbara Bazielich were subsequent editors of the series. Since 2011 the authors of this article have been part of the editorial staff. At their initiative ten more books of the series were published in the years 2013–2018, field research on traditional handicraft was conducted and the Traditional Costume Section was established. The article describes the circumstances accompanying this editorial series appearance and discusses both main directions in research on traditional costumes and activities for popularising knowledge of this unique cultural phenomenon.
The samples of the CuCr0.6 alloy in the solution treated and additionally in aging states were severely plastically deformed by compression with oscillatory torsion (COT) method to produce ultrafine – grained structure. The samples were processed by using process parameters as: frequency of torsion (f = 1.6 Hz), compression speed (v = 0.04 mm/s), angle torsion (α = ±6°), height reduction (Δh = 7 mm). The total effective strain was εft = 40. The microstructure has been analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) Hitachi HD-2300A equipped with a cold field emission gun at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV. The quantitative microstructure investigations as disorientation angles were performed using a FEI INSPECT F scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a cold field emission gun and a electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) detector. The mechanical properties were determined using MST QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation (DIC). The COT processed alloy previously aged at 500°C per 2h shows high mechanical strength, ultimate tensile strength UTS: 521 MPa and yield tensile strength YS: 488 MP attributed to the high density of coherent precipitates and ultrafine grained structure.
We present the results of investigations of Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 (PFN) ceramic samples obtained using two-step synthesis (i.e. columbite method). For obtained samples complex investigations of microstructure, magnetic and electrophysical properties have been performed at low and at high temperatures. Microstructure is characterized by small grains with high homogeneity and high density (low porosity). Impedance of samples and the phase shift angle have been measured using LCR Meter. Next the AC electric conductivity, dielectric permittivity and loss tangent have been calculated. AC conductivity at frequency 3 Hz was measured in similar way using Quantum Design PPMS System in magnetic fields 1000 Oe and 10000 Oe. At temperature range 240K-260K the anomalies of conductivity are observed. These anomalies depend on measuring cycle (heating, cooling) and magnetic field.
The study presents the summary of the knowledge of energy-active segments of steel buildings adapted to obtain electrical energy (EE) and thermal energy (TE) from solar radiation, and to transport and store TE. The study shows a general concept of the design of energy-active segments, which are separated from conventional segments in the way that allows the equipment installation and replacement. Exemplary solutions for the design of energy-active segments, optimised with respect to the principle of minimum thermal strain and maximum structural capacity and reliability were given . The following options of the building covers were considered: 1) regular structure, 2) reduced structure, 3) basket structure, 4) structure with a tie, high-pitched to allow snow sliding down the roof to enhance TE and EE obtainment. The essential task described in the study is the optimal adaptation of energy-active segments in large-volume buildings for extraction, transportation and storage of energy from solar radiation.
Two strength-age hardening aluminum-lithium alloys: Al-2.3wt%Li and Al-2.2wt%Li-0.1wt%Zr in two different heat treatment conditions: solution state (S) and additionally in aging state (A) were severely plastically deformed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) method to produce ultrafine – grained structure. Two thermo-mechanical treatments were used: (S+A+RCMR) and (S+RCMR+A+RCMR). To investigate the combined effect of plastic deformation and heat treatment, tensile tests were performed. Microstructural observations were undertaken using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscattering diffraction detector (EBSD). Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that maximum mechanical properties as: yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) could be achieved when the microstructure of alloys is in (S+A+RCMR) state. For samples in (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state, ductility is higher than for (S+A+RCMR) state. The microstructural results shows that the favourable conditions for decreasing grain size of alloys is (S+A+RCMR) state. Additionally, in this state is much greater dislocation density than for (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state. The microstructure of alloys in (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state is characterized by grains/subgrains with higher average diameter and with higher misorientation angles compared with (S+A+RCMR) state.
Microstructure and texture of the CuCr0.6 alloy processed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) at room temperature were investigated. The RCMR processing was applied for the samples in different initial conditions in the solid solution followed by quenching into iced water at 1000oC for 3 h and in aging treatment conditions performed at 500oC for 2 h and at 700oC for 24 h. Application of the solution and aging processes prior to RCMR deformation results in the partial dissolution of Cr particles into the Cu matrix and precipitation of the second phase particles. RCMR processing with value of the total effective strain (εft) of 5 was introduced to the material. It was found that the RCMR method is effective in texture weakening. The obtained results revealed that there is a large similarity in texture orientations after RCMR processing independently of heat treatment conditions. Cyclic character of deformation leads to an incomplete transition of LAB to HAB.
Urbanization has a far-reaching impact on the environment, economy, political and social processes. Therefore, understanding the spatial distribution and evolution of human settlements is a key element in planning strategies that ensure the sustainable development of urban and rural settlements. Accordingly, it is very important to map human settlements and to monitor the development of cities and villages. Therefore, the problem of settlements has found its reflection in the creation of global databases of urban areas. Global settlement data have extraordinary value. These data allow us to carry out the quantitative and qualitative analyses as well as to compare the settlement network at a regional, national and global scale. However, the possibility of conducting both spatial and attribute analyses of these data would be even more valuable. The article describes how to prepare raster data so that they can be implemented into a vector database. It answers the questions whether it is possible to combine these data with databases available in Poland and what benefits it brings. It presents the methods of data generalization and the optimization of time and disk space. As a result of the study, two vector databases with GUF data were developed. The first database resolution is similar to the original (~12 m resolution) database, the second database contains less detailed (~20 m resolution) data, generalized using mathematical morphology. Both databases have been enriched with descriptive data obtained from the National Geodetic and Cartographic Resource.