The paper presents the results of research on the influence of sintering temperature on microstructure, DC electrical conductivity, dielectric, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 ceramics doped by Li in the amount of 5.0% wt., in the abbreviation PLiFN. The ceramic samples of the PLiFN material were obtained by the two-stage synthesis – columbite method and sintered by free sintering methods. Introduction to the basic PbFe1/2Nb1/2O3 composition of the lithium admixture to decrease the electrical conductivity and reduction of dielectric loss. The tests have shown that the increase in sintering temperature orders the PLiFN ceramic microstructure, which has a positive effect on its electrophysical properties. At room temperature, the PLiFN ceramic samples show both ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. Considering the functional parameters of the obtained ceramic samples, the optimal technological conditions are 1100°C/2 h.
The discovery of (BaxCa1-x)(ZryTi1-x)O3 lead-free ceramics drawn a lot of attention to those novel materials because of their excellent piezoelectric properties. However, quite a little attention has been paid to other features of the material. This article reports a wide range of research, including composition, structure and microstructure, dielectric response and impedance spectroscopy in order to systematize and expand knowledge about this peculiar ceramics and strontium doping effect on its properties. In order to test that influence a series of samples with various strontium concentration, precisely the admixtures of 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 mol% were prepared, as well as basic ceramics to compare obtained results.
In the work five ceramic compounds based on the (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 (KNLN) material modified with oxides: Cr2O3, ZnO, Sb2O3 or Fe2O3 (in an amount of 0.5 mol.%) were obtained. The KNLN-type composition powder was prepared by solid phase synthesis from a mixture of simple oxides and carbonates, while compacted of the ceramic samples was conducted by free sintering methods. In the work the effect of the used admixture on the electrophysical properties of the KNLN ceramics was presented. The XRD, EDS tests, the SEM measurements of the morphology ceramic samples, dielectric properties and DC electric conductivity were conducted. The research showed that the used admixtures introduced into the base of KNLN-type composition improve the microstructure of the ceramic samples and improve their sinterability. In the case of the dielectric measurements, it was observed a decrease in the maximum dielectric permittivity at the TC for dopred KNLN-type samples. The addition of an admixture of chromium, zinc, antimony or iron in an amount of 0.5 mol.% to the base composition (K0.44Na0.52Li0.04)NbO3 practically does not change the phase transition temperature. The diminution in the density value of doped KNLN ceramics was attributed to the alkali elements volatilization.