For development of the knowledge-based economy, potential and quality of university education are an important factors to increase a competitiveness of local, regional, national and international scales. To shape the modern economy, the development of university education and studies corresponding with contemporary socio-economic challenges play an important role. As a result, the formation of scientific and academic centres, which are the basic elements of knowledge-based of economy, determines the improvement of the human resources quality and the increase in innovativeness of spatial systems on various scales. The author has discussed the issue of changes in university education in Poland and its role in socio-economic activation of regional systems, and also defined the structure of major studies in regional (voivodship) systems. This paper research has initiated wider investigations which aim will be to answer to what extent the actual university education structure corresponds to contemporary and future socio-economic needs and competences. this level of education in Poland has to face with the growing globalization processes and increasing spatial competitiveness, not only in a regional scale, but also in the national and international ones, and actual reforms of Polish education and science system.
The excellent property combination of thin wall ductile iron castings (TWDI), including thin wall alloyed cast iron (e.g. austenitic TWDI) has opened new horizons for cast iron to replace steel castings and forgings in many engineering applications with considerable cost benefits. TWDI is considered as a potential material for the preparation of light castings with good mechanical and utility properties, the cost of which is relatively low. In this study, unalloyed and high Ni-alloyed (25% Ni) spheroidal graphite cast iron, with an austenitic metallic matrix were investigated. The research was conducted for thin-walled iron castings with 2, 3 and 5mm wall thickness, using different mould temperature (20°C, and 160°C) to achieve various cooling rates. The metallographic examinations i.e. characteristic of graphite nodules, metallic matrix, and primary grains of austenite dendrites (in high-nickel NTWDI) and mechanical properties were investigated. The study shows that homogeneity of the casting structure of thin-walled castings varies when changing the wall thickness and mould temperature. Finally, mechanical properties of thin-walled ductile iron castings with ferritic-pearlitic and austenitic metallic matrix have been shown.
The paper presents the technology of manufacturing layered castings, consisting of grey cast iron (base part) and high-chromium stainless steel (working part/layer). The aim of researches was an attempt of integration of heat treatment of steel X46Cr13 grade with founding of grey cast iron in bimetallic system and determination of the influence of cooling rate of bimetallic system in classical sand mould with bentonite on microstructure and hardness of the working layer. The castings were manufactured using mould cavity preparation method, where steel plate was poured by grey cast iron using different pouring temperature and thickness of base part. Then, the quality of joint between cast iron and steel plate was estimated by using ultrasonic non-destructive testing. The efficiency of heat treatment process was analysed by measurement of hardness and in metallographic examination. Conducted studies showed, that self-hardening’s ability of steel X46Cr13 let obtain technologically usable layered casting characterized by hardness of working surface up to 35 HRC.
The article deals with the gas development of the geopolymer binder system hardened by heat and provides the comparison with organic binder systems. The GEOPOL® W technology is completely inorganic binder system, based on water. This fact allow that the gas generated during pouring is based on water vapour only. No dangerous emissions, fumes or unpleasant odours are developed. The calculated amount of water vapour generated from GEOPOL® W sand mixture is 1.9 cm3/g. The measured volume of gas for GEOPOL® W is 4.3 cm3/g. The measurement of gas evolution proves that the inorganic binder system GEOPOL® W generates very low volume of gas (water vapour) in comparison with PUR cold box amine and Croning. The amount of gas is several times lower than PUR cold box amine (3.7x) and Croning (4.2x). The experiment results are consistent with the literature sources. The difference between the calculated and the measured gas volume is justified by the reverse moisture absorption from the air after dehydration during storing and preparing the sand samples. Minimal generated volumes of gas/water vapour brings, mainly as was stated no dangerous emissions, also the following advantages: minimal risk of bubble defects creation, the good castings without defects, reduced costs for exhaust air treatment, no condensates on dies, reduced costs for cleaning.
In this work, an assessment and comparison of the quality of selected bentonites and bentonite mixtures was made. The samples consisted of available foundry materials used for bonding green sands. Determining the homogeneity degree and specific surface area of the grains allowed us to compare the examined materials and determine their influence on other parameters. On the basis of a thermal analysis of the bentonites or bentonite mixtures, the changes occurring in the sample during its heating were determined. Determining the potential for ion exchange and montmorillonite content enabled us to assess the binding properties of the materials. The preparation of six green sands with different bentonites or bentonite mixtures gave us the opportunity to assess the changes in apparent density, permeability, compressive strength and friability as a function of humidity, and the impact of different materials on the mentioned parameters. Their charts were analyzed, and the molding sand with the addition of bentonite or a bentonite mixture was selected for which these parameters are favorable. On this basis, the best-presented binding material was assessed and selected.
The main purpose of the author was to determine the spatial diversity of hotel base development in the regional (voivodship) system. Assuming that many factors determine the level of hotel base development in a given area, the author has used a multidimensional approach, or more precisely – a multidimensional comparative analysis in its dynamic variant. Following the adopted algorithm, a potential set of diagnostic variables was identified on the basis of secondary information sources (date of CSO local data bank), then using factor analysis to reduce it to the final set of quasi-variables (four main factors). Based on them, a synthetic measure of the development of the hotel base of particular voivodships was constructed. This in turn allowed to determine the voivodship hierarchical structure due to particular main factors and synthetic variable, with its changes in the years 2002–2017. The voivodship were also divided into homogeneous groups, according to the value of the synthetic measure of development, as well as the direction and intensity of its temporal changes.
Gas atmosphere at the sand mould/cast alloy interface determines the quality of the casting obtained. Therefore the aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the gas forming tendency of selected moulding sands with alkyd resins. During direct and indirect gas measurements, the kinetics of gas evolution was recorded as a function of the temperature of the sand mixture undergoing the process of thermal destruction. The content of hydrogen and oxygen was continuously monitored to establish the type of the atmosphere created by the evolved gases (oxidizing/reducing). The existing research methodology [1, 7, 8] has been extended to include pressure-assisted technique of indirect measurement of the gas evolution rate. For this part of the studies, a new concept of the measurement was designed and tested. This article presents the results of measurements and compares gas emissions from two sand mixtures containing alkyd resins known under the trade name SL and SL2002, in which the polymerization process is initiated with isocyanate. Studies of the gas forming tendency were carried out by three methods on three test stands to record the gas evolution kinetics and evaluate the risk of gas formation in a moulding or core sand. Proprietary methods for indirect evaluation of the gas forming tendency have demonstrated a number of beneficial aspects, mainly due to the ability to record the quantity and composition of the evolved gases in real time and under stable and reproducible measurement conditions. Direct measurement of gas evolution rate from the tested sands during cast iron pouring process enables a comparison of the results with the results obtained by indirect methods.