Developing the empathic attitude is one of the tasks of medical education as it aff ects the quality of therapeutic contact in the relationship between the doctor and the patient, conditioning the treatment process. According to Davis’s concept, empathy is defi ned as an aff ective-cognitive reaction in the context of the other person’s experience. Aim: Analysis of profi les of empathic sensitivity in students of medicine. Group: Male and female students of the fi ft h year of medicine who agreed to participate in an anonymous study (n = 153; M = 57, F = 96; mean age: 23 years). Tools: Th e Empathetic Sensitivity Scale (EES), which is the Polish tool for Davis’s Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) was used. Th e ESS includes three sub-scales: Empathic Care (EC), Personal Distress (PD) and Adopting Perspective (AP). Results: The raw results were converted into sten scores and for sten scores for all three dimensions of empathetic sensitivity no diff erences were found between male and female students. Th ree clusters (1: n = 33%, 2: n = 39%, 3: n = 28%), which diff er in terms of each distinguished indicator, were identifi ed. Conclusions: Th e first cluster characterizes empathetic people, both in the aff ective and cognitive spheres, and those dealing well with unpleasant emotions in situations diffi cult to others. Th e second cluster characterizes participants with the ability to recognize the needs of others and to take into account their perspectives; the third cluster includes participants with a tendency to focus on their own experiences emerging in response to other people’s suff ering but with the ability to understand a situation and show empathic concern for the other person. The most favourable profi le — for a future doctor as well as for his patients — is the fi rst cluster because the doctor, with his empathic sensitivity directed towards the other man, can deal with his own unpleasant emotions.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is the fi nal stage in several heart diseases. The diagnosis of CHF in older patients is a challenge. Preserved left ventricular systolic function is a characteristic type of CHF in seniors. The purpose of the study was to characterize elderly patients with CHF and to highlight specific features of the conditions in seniors. The most common etiology of HF in this group of patients is hypertension and coronary heart disease. In seniors atypical presentations of chronic heart failure is much more common than in younger patients. Malnutrition, limitations of exercise and sedentary lifestyles or comorbid diseases have an influence on asymptomatic, early stage of HF. Th ere are better outcomes of treatment in obese individuals. It is called the obesity paradox. Open communication with a patient and his/her family may improve their response to therapy. When heart failure becomes an incurable disease and aggressive treatment is ineffective, palliative care should be considered in end-of-life heart failure patients. The goal of treatment in the remaining moments of life last moments of life should be maximizing the patient’s comfort.
Ectopic pregnancy constitutes 2% of all pregnancies. In the last decades, due to the rising amount of caesarean sections, new localization of ectopic pregnancy has been observed — caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Cesarean scar pregnancy is an iatrogenic disease and a life-threatening condition which frequency will systematically rise. Because of possible serious complications, CSP should be swift ly diagnosed and treated. Th e purpose of this retrospective study was to demonstrate diff erent methods of CSP treatment performed between 2015–2018 in the Clinic of Endocrinological Gynaecology and Gynaecology Jagiellonian University Medical College in Cracow. Th e clinical characteristics, diagnosis, various methods of treatment and clinical outcomes were analysed. Defi nitive algorithm of CSP treatment is still not established. Pharmacological and operative methods are approved while expectant observation is considered unsafe due to possible risk of complications for the patient, including death.
Anatomy of the vascular system of the leg was studied using classical anatomical dissection methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the vascularization of the lower leg and its embryological background with special respect toward the posterior tibial artery and its branches.
I n t r o d u c t i o n: Complications occurring aft er neurosurgical procedures which lead to reoperations are associated with poor treatment outcomes. Th e aim of our study was to establish predictive factors of unplanned early reoperations aft er intracranial meningioma removal. Ma t e r i a l s a n d M e t h o d s: We retrospectively analyzed 177 patients who underwent craniotomy due to an intracranial meningioma. Early reoperation was defi ned as reoperation during the same hospital stay. We used a χ2 test for proportional values and t-test and Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate for continuous variables. To determine the potential predictors of early reoperation we used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. R e s u l t s: A total of 13 (7.34%) patients underwent unplanned early reoperation. Th ese patients underwent retrosigmoid craniotomies (25.00% vs. 6.40%; p = 0.047), suff ered from ischemic heart disease (66.67% vs. 6.64%; p <0.01) and atrial fi brillation (60.00% vs. 6.25%; p <0.01), were receiving heparin (50.00% vs. 6.74%; p <0.01) and anticoagulants (66.67% vs. 6.21%; p <0.01) signifi cantly more oft en than the general study population. In multivariate logistic regression analysis anticoagulant use (OR: 31.463; 95% CI: 1.139–868.604; p = 0.04) and retrosigmoid craniotomy (OR: 6.642; 95% CI: 1.139–38.73; p = 0.034) remained independently associated with a higher risk of early reoperation. C o n c l u s i o n s: Patients who underwent retrosigmoid craniotomy, those with a history of ischemic heart disease or atrial fi brillation and those who take heparin or anticoagulants are more likely to require early reoperation. Retrosigmoid craniotomy and anticoagulant use are independent risk factors for early reoperation.
Telocyte (TC) is an interstitial cell type with a small cellular body and extremely long tentacle-like extensions. TCs were discovered a decade ago and have specific morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical and secretome profi les, electrophysiological properties, microRNA expression. Moreover, they are different in gene expression from other cells. TCs play an important role in plenty of processes. Apparently, they are involved in homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration, repair, embryogenesis, angiogenesis and even tumorigenesis. “Telocytes need the world”, was emphasized by Professor Popescu and it will be actual at any time. This review summarizes particular features of TCs in different organs and systems, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.