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Abstrakt

The study focuses on one of the ways to express for eignness of ethnicities encountered by the inhabitants of Medieval Rus’, namely on constructing the origin of those ethnicities. The narrative about the origin of an ethnicity and its ancestors (origo gentis) is known from European medieval historiography in general. The oldest Russian chronicles, however, are distinguishable for not only recording the origin of their own nation, but noting the roots of completely different cultures, i.e. steppe tribes and northern peoples; later the origin of Mongols is refl ected in a similar way. The comparison of the Primary Chronicle and Latin Central European chronicles which were created almost at the same time period (Chronica Boemorum by Cosmas of Prague, Chronica et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum by Gallus Anonymus and a slightly younger anonymous Gesta Hungarorum) demonstrates that the primary function of Latin origo gentis was to define the identity of the medieval gens, which was changing into natio of the High Medieval Period, and to legitimate its political structures. In these chronicles, origo gentis never became a separate theme in relation to other nations. On the contrary, the authors of the oldest Russian chronicles considered the identifi cation of the origins of the foreign nations to be the key for recognizing their functions not only in the present or in the past, but, first and foremost, in the future, in the end time.
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The paper attempts to approach some peculiarities of the two branches of the early Slavs (Sclaveni and Antes), as the Byzantine sources of the sixth and early seventh centuries present them as being similar. Within this context the following are examined: a) the origin and ethnic identity of the Sclaveni and the Antes, taking into account certain historiographical models on the early Slavs, as well as the controversial issue of the ethnic identity of the Antes (Slavic or Iranian) and the etymology of their name; b) the material culture: under consideration are the Prague and Penkovka cultures, identifi ed with the Sclaveni and the Antes respectively, their common elements and peculiarities, their mutual infl uences as well as infl uences from other cultures; c) the political and social organization: the internal structures of the Sclaveni and the Antes, taking into account the testimony of Jordanes, Procopius and Maurice, the references in other sources to the titles of chieftains, or a kind of genealogy into the early Slavic society, as well as the treaty of Byzantium with the tribal union of the Antes are under scrutiny. The paper draws the conclusion that the Sclaveni and the Antes shared similarities, but actually were not one and the same at all, as it appears in the Byzantine sources. Furthermore, the peculiarities that appear the political-social organization and the material culture of the Antes, due to their historical and cultural evolution, are not of a degree that could dispute their Slavic ethnic and cultural identity.
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The article portrays the motif of dream and its symbolic meanings in Vladimir Nabokov’s short story Terror, what has not been the subject of detailed research so far. It has been determined that the experience of dream in the analysed story denotes the protagonist’s attempt to escape from the surrounding world and a shift into the sphere of the unconscious (mysterious anaesthesia). Thus the topos of dream/dream fantasy in Terror implies the existence of a hero in a particular kind of chronotope, and is connected with the semantics of the passage – from demonic chaos and metaphysical terror to restoration of cosmic (microcosmic) order and to “becoming oneself” (Ricoeur). Moreover, dream in Nabokov’s text is intrinsically linked with the problem of compatibility/ incompatibility of the two worlds: the real and the oneiric one, existing in reality and reflected in a mirror, and also with the motif of a doppelganger which bears references to Dostoyevsky’s writings. Also, an oneiric image of a laughing woman is analysed in detail in the article. It has been proven that laugter (giggle) of the story’s heroine unveils ambivalent and demonic dimension of femininity and is a reference to Pushkin’s The Queen of Spades.
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The article discusses the book Roizman. The Ural Robin Hood by Valery Panyushkin (2014). The author of the article points out that the novel, which belongs to a non-fiction literature, contains typical features of a reportage (i.e. the category of a participant and the category of a witness). This book also seems to be taking qualities of a narrative prose. The writer uses virtual reported speech form or presents reality from the perspective of his characters’ awareness. Such a narrative method does not lead Panyushkin to blur the boundary between referentiality and fi ctionality in his book but inclines cognitive skepticism. Neither does it neglect the “truth” of facts, nor does it interpret them, but it indicates various ways of interpreting certain events or phenomena.
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This paper discusses the linguistic features of political propaganda in the Polish newspaper “Trybuna Radziecka”, which was published in Moscow in 1927–1938 and edited by Polish left-intelligentsia, living in USRR as political émigrés in the interwar period. “Trybuna Radziecka” as the other Polish newspapers published in Soviet Russia was a part of the Soviet press. It entirely depended on Soviet authorities. Its language reflected the Soviet Russian language and was an example of political jargon typical for all communist newspapers of the interwar period.
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The authors analyse around 300 names with ideological components drawn out from a list of around 5,000 colonies, villages, hamlets, rural settlements and khutors located in the USSR, in which Germans lived in the 1920s and 30s. These oekonyms-sovieticisms can be classifi ed into three groups: 1) those derived from the names of individuals who had achieved renown (e.g. Ленинфельд, Подарок Ильича, Роза Люксембург, Марксфельд, Либкнехтдорф, Тельман, Клара Цеткин, Кировсфельд, Калининталь), 2) those commemorating phenomena and events linked with the Revolution and the era of Soviet rule (e.g. Красная Германия, Ротвейде, Ротер Штерн, Краснофельд, Октоберберг), 3) those referring to areas of production (e.g. Счастливый Труд, Культурный пахарь, Арбейтслибе).
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The author of the article makes an attempt to show borrowings from the perspective of their penetration into Polish and presents the most common and less frequent words. Special attention is paid to the usage and context of separate words in pairs (native word ~ borrowed word) in two idiolects that demonstrate the preservation of the Polish language tradition and show a new wave of loanwords as well. The author describes some word-formative peculiarities of verbs in the dialectal Polish language of Gródek Podolski. This text can be a supplement to the previous papers concerning borrowed vocabulary and morphological derivation in Polish dialects.
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The article studies such cultural phenomenon as madness in its romantic (Edgar Poe) and expressionistic (Ivan Shmelyov) interpretation. Refl ecting upon the philosophical concept introduced by Michel Foucault the author analyzes how visual-plastic and verbal experience of interpreting madness in terms of literature is realized. Verbal and literary peculiarities of creating an aesthetic image of madness within the romantic canon in Poe’s story is compared to the specific features of verbal and visual images created in the style of expressionism by Shmelyov. Techniques of literary image visualization, revealing the specific nature of interaction between different forms of literature, art, cinema peculiar to the first third of the twentieth century, are studied in the process of transition from the aesthetics of story to the aesthetics of presentation.
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Kazimierz Jaworski contributed to a great extent to popularising Yevhen Malaniuk’s poetry in the interwar period. Most of Jaworski’s translations of Malaniuk’s poems into Polish were published in the years 1933–1937 in the magazine Kamena in Chełm. The poet from Lublin undertook to translate less popular poems, unknown to Polish readers. He opted not to work with the Ukrainian poet’s patriotic works, familiar to Polish literary circles, and chose poems of intimate and existential nature instead. From the two collections which were known in Poland, Earth And Iron (1930) and The Earthly Madonna (1934), he selected poems which in a special way correlate with his own lyrical works from the To a Red And White Mistress (1924) collection. What deserves special attention among Kazimierz Jaworski’s translating techniques is his exceptional diligence in choosing suitable Polish semantic equivalents and in rendering an appropriate rhythm of poems. Most of his translations can be described as adequate. They are not absolute, but they convey the originality of a given work through preserving the form and contents of the translated poem in the most faithful way possible. Jaworski’s translations show his inclination to poetise and dynamise the text. The translator readily uses his own metaphors and expands phrases with emotionally charged elements. Kazimierz Andrzej Jaworski was also a tireless propagator of information concerning the most recent translations of Yevhen Malaniuk’s poetry as well as the publishing activities of one of the most valued representatives of the Ukrainian immigration in Poland.
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The article is dedicated to the determination of the types and functions of “someone else’s word”, i.e. intertextual relationships, present in political dramas of contemporary Russian writers. The author focuses on two types of intertexts such as quotes and allusions; determines their importance to the dramatic work as a whole, and distinguishes topic-related groups of texts to which dramatists refer. The conclusions of the study incline to place the phenomenon of political drama between what is “literary” and “social”, “eternal” and “up-to-date”.The analysis was carried out on the materials of dramas such as: Putin.doc by Victor Teterin, Sentry (Часовой) by Siergiej Reshetnikov, Meat by Olga Pogodina, and Beria by Dmitry Karapuzov.
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