Submitted work deals with the analysis of reoxidation processes for aluminium alloys. Due to the aluminium high affinity to the oxygen, the oxidation and consequently reoxidation will occur. Paper focuses on the gating system design in order to suppress and minimize reoxidation processes. Design of the gating system is considered as one of the most important aspect, which can reduce the presence of reoxidation products - bifilms. The main reason for the reoxidation occurrence is turbulence during filling of the mold. By correctly designing the individual parts of gating system, it is possible to minimize turbulence and to ensure a smooth process of the mold filling. The aim of the work is an innovative approach in the construction of gating system by using unconventional elements, such as a naturally pressurized system or vortex elements. The aim is also to clarify the phenomenon during the gating system filling by visualization with the aid of ProCAST numerical simulation software. ProCAST can calculate different indicators which allow to better quantify the filling pattern.
In this paper is discussed the effect of the inoculant mischmetal addition on the microstructure of the magnesium alloy AZ91. The concentration of the inoculant was increased in the samples within the range from 0.1% up to 0.6%. The thermal process was performed with the use of Derivative and Thermal Analysis (DTA). A particular attention was paid to finding the optimal amount of the inoculant, which causes fragmentation of the microstructure. The concentration of each element was verified with use of a spark spectrometer. In addition, the microstructures of every samples were examined with the use of an optical microscope and also was performed an image analysis with a statistical analysis using the NIS–Elements program. The point of those analyses was to examine the differences in the grain diameters of phase αMg and eutectic αMg+γ(Mg17Al12) in the prepared samples as well as the average size of each type of grain by way of measuring their perimeters. This paper is the second part of the introduction into a bigger research on grain refinement of magnesium alloys, especially AZ91. Another purpose of this research is to achieve better microstructure fragmentation of magnesium alloys without the relevant changes of the chemical composition, which should improve the mechanical properties.
The article presents the results of research on the finishing of M63 Z4 brass by vibratory machining. Brass alloy was used for the research due to the common use of ammunition elements, cartridge case and good cold forming properties on the construction. Until now, the authors have not met with the results of research to determine the impact of abrasive pastes in container processing. It was found that the additive for container abrasive treatment of abrasive paste causes larger mass losses and faster surface smoothing effects. The treatment was carried out in two stages: in the first stage, the workpieces were deburred and then polished. Considerations were given to the impact of mass of workpieces, machining time and its type on mass loss and changes in the geometric structure of the surface. The surface roughness of machining samples was measured with the Talysurf CCI Lite optical profiler. The suggestions for future research may be to carry out tests using abrasive pastes with a larger granulation of abrasive grains, and to carry out tests for longer processing times and to determine the time after which the parameters of SGP change is unnoticeable.
The paper presents results of a study concerning an AlSi7Mg alloy and the effect of subjecting the liquid metal to four different processes: conventional refining with hexachloroethane; the same refining followed by modification with titanium, boron, and sodium; refining by purging with argon carried out in parallel with modification with titanium and boron salts and strontium; and parallel refining with argon and modification with titanium, boron, and sodium salts. The effect of these four processes on compactness of the material, parameters of microstructure, and fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg alloy after heat treatment. It has been found that the highest compactness (the lowest porosity ratio value) and the most favorable values of the examined parameters of microstructure were demonstrated by the alloy obtained with the use of the process including parallel purging with argon and modification with salts of titanium, boron, and sodium. It has been found that in the fatigue cracking process observed in all the four variants of the liquid metal treatment, the crucial role in initiation of fatigue cracks was played by porosity. Application of the process consisting in refining by purging with argon parallel to modification with Ti, B, and Na salts allowed to refine the microstructure and reduce significantly porosity of the alloy extending thus the time of initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. The ultimate effect consisted in a distinct increase of the fatigue limit value.
Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
Investment casting combined with the additive manufacturing technology enables production of the thin-walled elements, that are geometrically complex, precise and can be easy commercialized. This paper presents design of aluminium alloy honeycombs, which are characterized with light structure, internal parallel oriented channels and suitable stiffness. Based on 3D printed pattern the mould was prepared from standard ceramic material subjected subsequently to appropriate heat treatment. Into created mould cavity with intricate and susceptible structure molten AC 44200 aluminium alloy was poured under low pressure. Properly designed gating system and selected process parameters enabled to limit the shrinkage voids, porosities and misruns. Compression examination performed in two directions showed different mechanisms of cell deformation. Characteristic plateau region of stress-strain curves allowed to determine absorbed energy per unit volume, which was 485 or 402 J/mm3 depending on load direction. Elaborated technology will be applied for the production of honeycomb based elements designated for energy absorption capability.
Ablation casting is a technological process in which the increased cooling rate causes microstructure refinement, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the final product. This technology is particularly suitable for the manufacture of castings with intricate shapes and thin walls. Currently, the ablation casting process is not used in the Polish industry. This article presents the results of strength tests carried out on moulding sands based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened in the Floster S technology, intended for ablation casting of the AlSi7Mg (AK7) aluminium alloy. When testing the bending and tensile strengths of sands, parameters such as binder and hardener content were taken into account. The sand mixtures were tested after 24h hardening at room temperature. The next stage of the study describes the course of the ablation casting process, starting with the manufacture of foundry mould from the selected moulding mixture and ending in tests carried out on the ready casting to check the surface quality, structure and mechanical properties. The results were compared with the parallel results obtained on a casting gravity poured into the sand mould and solidifying in a traditional way at ambient temperature.
The intercalation into interlayer spaces of montmorillonite (MMT), obtained from natural calcium bentonite, was investigated. Modification of MMT was performed by the poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt (co-MA/AA). Efficiency of modification of MMT by sodium salt co-MA/AA was assessed by the infrared spectroscopic methods (FTIR), X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and spectrophotometry UV-Vis. It was found, that MMT can be relatively simply modified with omitting the preliminary organofilisation – by introducing hydrogel chains of maleic acid-acrylic acid copolymer in a form of sodium salt into interlayer galleries. A successful intercalation by sodium salt of the above mentioned copolymer was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction (shifting the reflex(001) originated from the montmorillonite phase indicating an increase of interlayer distances) as well as by the infrared spectroscopy (occurring of vibrations characteristic for the introduced organic macromolecules). The performed modification causes an increase of the ion exchange ability which allows to assume that the developed hybrid composite: MMT-/maleic acid-acrylic acid copolymer (MMT-co- MA/AA) can find the application as a binding material in the moulding sands technology. In addition, modified montmorillonites indicate an increased ability for ion exchanges at higher temperatures (TG-DTG, UV-Vis). MMT modified by sodium salt of maleic acid-acrylic acid copolymer indicates a significant shifting of the loss of the ion exchange ability in the direction of the higher temperature range (500–700°C).
The mathematical model and numerical simulations of the solidification of a cylindrical shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity by liquid metal and feeding the casting through the riser during its solidification, are presented in the paper. Mutual dependence of thermal and flow phenomena were taken into account because have an essential influence on solidification process. The effect of the riser shape on the effectiveness of feeding of the solidifying casting was determined. In order to obtain the casting without shrinkage defects, an appropriate selection of riser shape was made, which is important for foundry practice. Numerical calculations of the solidification process of system consisting of the casting and the conical or cylindrical riser were carried out. The velocity fields have been obtained from the solution of momentum equations and continuity equation, while temperature fields from solving the equation of heat conductivity containing the convection term. Changes in thermo-physical parameters as a function of temperature were considered. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the problem.
The paper presents the initial results of investigation concerning the abrasion resistance of cast iron with nodular, vermicular, or flake graphite. The nodular and vermicular cast iron specimens were cut out of test coupons of the IIb type with the wall thickness equal to 25 mm, while the specimens made of grey cast iron containing flake graphite were cut out either of special casts with 20 mm thick walls or of the original brake disk. The abrasion tests were carried out by means of the T-01M tribological unit working in the pin-on-disk configuration. The counterface specimens (i.e. the disks) were made of the JT6500 brand name friction material. Each specimen was abraded over a distance of 4000 m. The mass losses, both of the specimens and of the counterface disks, were determined by weighting. It was found that the least wear among the examined materials was exhibited by the nodular cast iron. In turn, the smallest abrasion resistance was found in vermicular cast iron and in cast iron containing flake graphite coming from the brake disk. However, while the three types of specimens (those taken from the nodular cast iron and from grey cast iron coming either from the special casts or from the brake disk) have almost purely pearlitic matrix (P95/Fe05), the vermicular cast iron matrix was composed of pearlite and ferrite occurring in the amounts of about 50% each (P50/Fe50). Additionally, it was found that the highest temperature at the cast iron/counterface disk contact point was reached during the tests held for the nodular cast iron, while the lowest one occurred for the case of specially cast grey iron.
The paper presents a method of producing a grey cast iron casting locally reinforced with a titanium insert printed using SLM method (Selective Laser Melting). This article attempts to examine the impact of the selected geometry of titanium spatial insert on the surface layer formation on grey cast iron. The scope of the research focuses on metallographic examination - observation and analysis of the structure of the reinforced surface layer on a light and scanning microscope and a hardness measurement of the titanium layer area. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the reaction between titanium insert and metal (grey cast iron) locally develops numerous carbides precipitation (mainly TiC particles), which increases the hardness of the reinforced surface layer and local strengthening of the material. The ratio between the thickness of the support part (grey cast iron) and the working part (titanium insert) affects the resulting layers connection structure. The properties of the obtained reinforced surface layer depend mainly on the geometry of the insert (primarily on the internal dimensions of the connector) and the volume of the casting affecting the re-melting of the insert. A more concentrated structure of carbides precipitation occurs in castings with a full connector insert.
The paper presents some aspects of a development project related to Industry 4.0 that was executed at Nemak, a leading manufacturer of the aluminium castings for the automotive industry, in its high pressure die casting foundry in Poland. The developed data analytics system aims at predicting the casting quality basing on the production data. The objective is to use these data for optimizing process parameters to raise the products’ quality as well as to improve the productivity. Characterization of the production data including the recorded process parameters and the role of mechanical properties of the castings as the process outputs is presented. The system incorporates advanced data analytics and computation tools based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and applying an MS Excel platform. It enables the foundry engineers and operators finding the most efficient process variables to ensure high mechanical properties of the aluminium engine block castings. The main features of the system are explained and illustrated by appropriate graphs. Chances and threats connected with applications of the data-driven modelling in die casting are discussed.
The research focused on the influence of the solution temperature on the structure of precipitation hardening multi-component hypoeutectic aluminium alloys. The AlSi8Cu3 and AlSi6Cu4 alloys were used in the study and were subjected to a thermal-derivative analysis. The chemical composition and crystallization of phases and eutectics shift the characteristic points and the corresponding temperatures to other values, which affect to, for instance, the solution temperature. The alloys were supersaturated at 475°C (according to the determined temperature (TSol) and 505°C for 1.5 hours. Aging was performed at 180°C for 5 hours. The Rockwell hardness measurement, metallographic analysis of alloys by means of light microscopy as well as chemical and phase analysis using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography were carried out on alloys. The use of computer image analysis enabled the determination of the amount of the current Al2Cu phase in the alloys before and after heat treatment.
The paper deals with possibility to improve operating performance of cast-iron heat exchangers by providing them with a copper alloy (CuTi2Cr) with the use of the flame spraying method. A test exchanger was cast of a gray cast iron with vermicular graphite in ferriticpearlitic matrix obtained in production conditions at KAW-MET Iron Foundry with the wire method used to vermicularize the material. The test samples were two plates cast in sand molds, of which one was given a flame-sprayed CuTi2Cr coat on one side. The operating performance of such model cast-iron heat exchangers, with and without CuTi2Cr coating, was tested on a set-up for determining the heat flow rate (thermal power) transferred by the heat exchanger to environment. The obtained results indicate that the value of the heat flow rate characterizing the CuTi2Cr-coated cast-iron heat exchanger was by 10% higher compared to the flow rate of heat conveyed to environment by the heat exchanger without coating.
The results of the efficiency of the primary reclamation process as well as the influence of the used sand temperature and other process parameters on it are presented in this paper. A separate stand realized on a reduced scale was built, which is an analogous process of the primary reclamation treatment of spent foundry sands. The used sands were introduced to the crushing process in an agglomerated form in the way typically used in industrial devices. The primary reclamation process was realized on a set of four horizontal sieves with decreasing mesh clearances while maintaining their geometrical dimensions applied in the Regmas industrial device. The model system consists of a vibratory drive mounted on the table, allowing us to control the supply frequency of the vibratory motors within a range of 40-60 Hz as well as the computer system for measuring the vibration parameters and drive power. The used sand on the quartz matrix with the KALTHARZ U404 resin and 100T3 hardener was used in our investigations. The used sand was prepared under the following conditions: cubic-shaped elements made of the applied furan sand was compacted by vibrations then hardened and subjected to heating under controlled conditions (as a “simulation” of the overheating process taking place in the mold after pouring). Time functions of the crushing and sieving process in dependence of the overheating degree of the reference sand samples (100°, 200°, and 300°C) were investigated at various table vibration frequencies and feed loads of the sieve set. The relative index of the crushing ability was determined.
The goal of this article is non-destructive ultrasonic testing of internal castings defects. Our task was to cast several samples with defects like porosity and cavities (where belongs mostly shrinkages) and then pass these samples under ultrasonic testing. The characteristics of ultrasonic control of castings are presented in the theoretical part of this article. Ultrasonic control is a volume non-destructive method that can detect internal defects in controlled materials without damaging the construction. It is one of the most widely used methods of volume non-destructive testing. For experimental control were made several cylindrical samples from ferritic grey and ductile cast iron. Because of the form and dispersion of graphite of grey cast iron it was not possible to make ultrasonic records on this casting with probe we used, so we worked only with ductile cast iron. Ultrasonic records of casting control are shown and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of the measurement results and the reliability of the ultrasonic method in castings control is listed at the end of this article.