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Number of results: 29
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Abstract

The cohesion and internal friction angle were characterized as quadratic functions of strain and were assumed to follow the Mohr-Coulomb criterion after the yield of peak strength. These mechanical parameters and their variations in post-peak softening stage can be exactly ascertained through the simultaneous solution based on the data points of stress-strain curves of triaxial compression tests. Taking the influence of the fault into account, the variation of strata pressure and roadway convergence with coal advancement, the temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load were numerically simulated by FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) using the ascertained post-peak mechanical parameters according to the cohesion weakening and friction strengthening model. The change mechanism of axial load of single rock bolt as abutment pressure changes was analyzed, through the comparison analysis with the results of axial bolt load by field measurements at a coal mine face. The research results show that the simulated results such as the period of main roof weighting, temporal and spatial distribution of axial bolt load are in accordance with field measurement results, so the validity of the numerical model is testified. In front of the working face, the front abutment pressure increases first and then decreases, finally tends to be stable. A corresponding correlation exists between the variation of axial bolt load and rock deformation along the bolt body. When encountered by a fault, the maximum abutment pressure, the influential range of mining disturbance and the roadway convergence between roof and floor before the working face are all increased. In the roadways along the gob, axial bolt loads on the side of the working face decrease, while the other side one increases after the collapse of the roof. As superficial surrounding rock mass is damaged, the anchoring force of rock bolts will transfer to inner rock mass for balancing the tensile load of the bolts.
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Abstract

Dynamic Mine disasters can be induced by the instability and failure of a composite structure of rock and coal layers during coal mining. Coal seam contains many native defects, severely affecting the instability and failure of the compound structure. In this study, the effects of coal persistent joint on the strength and failure characteristics of coal-rock composite samples were evaluated using PFC2D software. The results show that with the increase of included angle α between the loading direction and joint plane direction, the uniaxial compressive stress (UCS) and peak strain of composite samples first decrease and then gradually increase. The elastic moduli of composite samples do not change obviously with α. The peak strain at α of 45° is the lowest, and the UCS at α of 30° is the smallest. This is inconsistent with theoretical analysis of lowest UCS at α of 45°. This is because that the local stress concentration caused by the motion inconformity of composite samples may increase the average axial stress of upper wall in PFC2D software. Moreover, the coal persistent joint promotes the transformation from the unstable crack expansion to the macro-instability of composite samples, especially at α of 30° and 45°. The majority of failures for composite samples occur within the coal, and no obvious damage is observed in rock. Their failure modes are shear failure crossing or along the coal persistent joint. The failure of composite sample at α of 30° is a mixed failure, including the shear failure along the persistent joint in coal and tensile failure of rock induced by the propagation of coal persistent joint.
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Abstract

The paper presents results of the field tests on membrane biogas enrichment performed with the application of mobile membrane installation (MMI) with the feed stream up to 10 Nm3/h. The mobile installation equipped with four hollow fibre modules with polyimide type membranes was tested at four different biogas plants. Two of them were using agricultural substrates. The third one was constructed at a municipal wastewater plant and sludge was fermented in a digester and finally in the fourth case biogas was extracted from municipal waste landfill site. Differences in the concentration of bio-methane in feed in all cases were observed and trace compounds were detected as well. High selectivity polyimide membranes, in proper module arrangements, can provide a product of high methane content in all cases. The content of other trace compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide, water vapour and oxygen on the product did not exceed the values stated by standard for a biogas as a vehicle fuel. The traces of hydrogen sulphide and water vapour penetrated faster to the waste stream enriched in carbon dioxide, which could lead to further purification of the product – methane being hold in the retentate (H2O > H2S > CO2 > O2 > CH4 > N2). In the investigated cases, when concentration of N2 was low and concentration of CH4 higher than 50%, it was possible to upgrade methane to concentration above 90% in a two-stage cascade. To performsimulation ofCH4 andCO2 permeation through polyimide membrane,MATLABwas used. Simulation program has included permeation gaseous mixture with methane contents as observed at field tests in the range of 50 and 60% vol. The mass transport process was estimated for a concurrent hollow fibre membrane module for given pressure and temperature conditions and different values of stage cut. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. The highest degree of methane recovery was obtained with gas concentrating in a cascade with recycling of the retentate.
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Abstract

A hybrid artificial boundary condition (HABC) that combines the volume-based acoustic damping layer (ADL) and the local face-based characteristic boundary condition (CBC) is presented to enhance the absorption of acoustic waves near the computational boundaries. This method is applied to the prediction of aerodynamic noise from a circular cylinder immersed in uniform compressible viscous flow. Different ADLs are designed to assess their effectiveness whereby the effect of the mesh-stretch direction on wave absorption in the ADL is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) and FW-H acoustic analogy method are implemented to predict the far-field noise, and the sensitivities of each approach to the HABC are compared. In the LES computed propagation field of the fluctuation pressure and the frequency-domain results, the spurious reflections at edges are found to be significantly eliminated by the HABC through the effective dissipation of incident waves along the wave-front direction in the ADL. Thereby, the LES results are found to be in a good agreement with the acoustic pressure predicted using FW-H method, which is observed to be just affected slightly by reflected waves.
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