In August 2016, tomato plants grown during a hot, wet summer with heavy soil flooding, displaying symptoms of wilting, dead plant, root rot with crown and stem rot, at Beni Suef and Fayoum governorates were examined. A number of 16 fungal isolates were isolated from tomato plants displaying the above symptoms. These isolates were classified as belonging to six species, namely: Alternaria solani, Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani. Isolates of Pythium spp. were prevalent and were found to be more pathogenic than the other fungal isolates. This species causes damping-off, root rot, sudden death, stem rot and fruit rot. The pathogen was identified as Pythium aphanidermatum based on morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. Biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced using the F. oxysporum strain and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of these spherical particles ranged from 10 to 30 nm. In vitro, biogenic AgNPs showed antifungal activity against P. aphanidermatum. In greenhouse and field experiments, AgNPs treatment significantly reduced the incidence of dead tomato plants due to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum compared to the control. All of the investigated treatments were effective and the treatment of root dipping plus soil drenching was the most effective. To the best of our knowledge, this study describes P. aphanidermatum on tomato in Egypt for the first time. Also, biogenic AgNPs could be used for controlling root rot disease caused by this pathogen.
In the paper, two preprocessing methods for virtual view synthesis are presented. In the first approach, both horizontal and vertical resolutions of the real views and the corresponding depth maps are doubled in order to perform view synthesis on images with densely arranged points. In the second method, real views are filtered in order to eliminate blurred or improperly shifted edges of the objects. Both methods are performed prior to synthesis, thus they may be applied to different Depth-Image-Based Rendering algorithms. In the paper, for both proposed methods, the achieved quality gains are presented.
In this paper, a modification of the graph-based depth estimation is presented. The purpose of proposed modification is to increase the quality of estimated depth maps, reduce the time of the estimation, and increase the temporal consistency of depth maps. The modification is based on the image segmentation using superpixels, therefore in the first step of the proposed modification a segmentation of previous frames is used in the currently processed frame in order to reduce the overall time of the depth estimation. In the next step, a depth map from the previous frame is used in the depth map optimization as the initial values of a depth map estimated for the current frame. It results in the better representation of silhouettes of objects in depth maps and in the reduced computational complexity of the depth estimation process. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed modification the authors performed the experiment for a set of multiview test sequences that varied in their content and an arrangement of cameras. The results of the experiments confirmed the increase of the depth maps quality — the quality of depth maps calculated with the proposed modification is higher than for the unmodified depth estimation method, apart from the number of the performed optimization cycles. Therefore, use of the proposed modification allows to estimate a depth of the better quality with almost 40% reduction of the estimation time. Moreover, the temporal consistency, measured through the reduction of the bitrate of encoded virtual views, was also considerably increased.
The synthesis problem for optimal control systems in the class of discrete controls is under consideration. The problem is investigated by reducing to a linear programming (LP) problem with consequent use of a dynamic version of the adaptive method of LP. Both perfect and imperfect information on behavior of control system cases are studied. Algorithms for the optimal controller, optimal estimators are described. Results are illustrated by examples.
This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audio decoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. The decoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to keep the complexity low, most of the processing is performed in the parametric domain. This parametric processing includes pitch and tempo shifting, volume adjustment, selection of psychoacoustically relevant components for synthesis and stereo image creation. The decoder allows for good quality 44.1 kHz stereo audio streaming at 24 kbps. The synthesizer matches the audio quality of industry-standard sample-based synthesizers while using a twenty times smaller memory footprint soundbank. The presented decoder/synthesizer is designed for low-power mobile platforms and supports music streaming, ringtone synthesis, gaming and remixing applications.
The aim of this paper is to present methods of digitally synthesising the sound generated by vibroacoustic systems with distributed parameters. A general algorithm was developed to synthesise the sounds of selected musical instruments with an axisymmetrical shape and impact excitation, i.e., Tibetan bowls and bells. A coupled mechanical-acoustic field described by partial differential equations was discretized by using the Finite Element Method (FEM) implemented in the ANSYS package. The presented synthesis method is original due to the fact that the determination of the system response in the time domain to the pulse (impact) excitation is based on the numerical calculation of the convolution of the forcing function and impulse response of the system. This was calculated as an inverse Fourier transform of the system’s spectral transfer function. The synthesiser allows for obtaining a sound signal with the assumed, expected parameters by tuning the resonance frequencies which exist in the spectrum of the generated sound. This is accomplished, basing on the Design of Experiment (DOE) theory, by creating a meta-model which contains information on its response surfaces regarding the influence of the design parameters. The synthesis resulted in a sound pressure signal in selected points in space surrounding the instrument which is consistent with the signal generated by the actual instruments, and the results obtained can improve them.
In this paper, explain the preparation of CaTiO3 ceramics synthesized by the solid-state reaction method. Calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide were high energy mixed in stoichiometric amounts, and the obtained mixture was calcined at different temperatures (800, 900, 1000 and 1300ºC) for 2 h. The obtained samples were characterized by measurement of particle size, Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Analysis; differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and SEM images. XRD patterns indicated that CaTiO3 ceramics with the structure of perovskite is obtained from calcined powders at 1,300°C for 2 h. SEM images show the formation of a very fine and homogeneous morphology. The measured values of electrical resistivity were within the typical range of insulating materials and approach values corresponding to insulating ceramics.
The work presents results of solution combustion method utilization for yttria (Y2O3) nanopowder fabrication. Experiments were carried out with four different reducing agents: urea, glycine, citric acid and malonic acid added in stoichiometric ratio. The reactions were investigated using simultaneous DSC/DTA thermal analysis. After synthesis the reaction products were calcined at temperature range of 800-1100°C and analyzed in terms of particle size, specific surface area and morphology. Best results were obtained for nanoyttria powder produced from glycine. After calcination at temperature of 1100°C the powder exhibits in a form of nanometric, globular particles of diameter <100 nm, according to SEM analysis. The dBET for thus obtained powder is 104 nm, however the powder is agglomerated as the particle size measured by dynamic light scattering analysis is 1190 nm (dV50).
An automated procedure based on evolutionary computation and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is proposed to synthesize the optimal distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) in multi-site injection for a Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia (MFH) therapy. Evolution Strategy and Non dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) are used as optimization procedures coupled with a Finite Element computation tool.
The aim of the present study was to develop a modifier for water glass. The method of thermal generation of metal oxide nanoparticles was adapted and used in the research. Nanoparticles of ZnO from the thermal decomposition of basic zinc carbonate were used. A method for the modifier introduction was developed, and the effect of modifier content and organic solvent type on the physico-chemical properties of binder (viscosity) and quartz wettability was determined. Binder viscosity was examined from the flow curves plotted with the help of a RHEOTEST 2 rotational rheometer equipped with proper software. Quartz wettability was determined examining timerelated changes in the value of the contact angle in a quartz-binder system, until full stabilisation of the angle value has been achieved. Binder modification was carried out on sodium water glass designated as R"145". The water glass modifiers were suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in propanol and methanol at a fixed concentration of c = 0.3 M and with the size of nanoparticles comprised in a range of <61 - 981 nm>. Water glass modification with the suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles in methanol and propanol showed the effect of modifier on the water glass viscosity and quartz wettability. This effect depends on the type of alcohol used. The ZnO suspension in propanol (alcohol with a longer hydrocarbon chain) affects more strongly the viscosity of binder and quartz wettability than the methanol suspension.
The study presents the results of research on the development of composite zones in castings based on the intermetallic phase of Ni3Al. Composite zones were obtained by placing packets with substrates for the reaction of titanium carbide in a foundry mould. To provide a variable carbides content in the composite zone, two compositions of the packets were prepared. The first packet contained only substrates for the reaction of TiC synthesis; the second one also contained a filler. The resulting composite zones in castings were examined for the filler effect on changes in the volume fraction, size and morphology of carbides in the zone. In addition, the effect of filler on the mechanical properties of the zone was verified, observing changes of Vickers hardness in this area. It was found that the presence of filler in the composition of the packet for synthesis reduced the content of carbides, as well as their size and morphology. Lower surface content of carbides reduced hardness of the zone, which enabled smooth control of the mechanical properties. At the same time, the use of the selected filler did not disturb the course of the TiC carbide synthesis.
Fe-40wt% TiB2 nanocomposites were fabricated by mechanical activation and spark-plasma sintering of a powder mixture of iron boride (FeB) and titanium hydride (TiH2). The powder mixture of (FeB, TiH2) was prepared by high-energy ball milling in a planetary ball mill at 700 rpm for 3 h followed by spark-plasma sintering (SPS) at various conditions. Analysis of the change in relative sintered density and densification rate during sintering showed that a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction occurs to form TiB2 from FeB and Ti. A sintered body with relative density higher than 98% was obtained after sintering at 1150°C for 5 and 15 min. The microstructural observation of sintered compacts with the use of FE-SEM and TEM revealed that ultrafine particulates with approximately 5 nm were evenly distributed in an Fe-matrix. A hardness value of 83 HRC was obtained, which is equivalent to that of conventional WC-20 Co systems.
The paper presents the mathematical model of an autonomous induction generator with the AC load circuit and the converter control system of the voltage magnitude at the terminals of stator generator. The control algorithm and the structure of the control system are described. The simulation results of the control system are presented and discussed.
The paper presents optimization of 5-rod (5-link) suspension mechanism used in passenger cars for independent guiding of the wheels. Selected stiffness coefficients defined for five elastomeric bushings installed in joints of the suspension rods are considered as design variables. Two models with lumped parameters (i.e. elastokinematic and dynamic) of wheel-suspension-car body system are formulated to describe relationships between the design variables and the performance indexes including car active safety and ride comfort, respectively. The multi-criteria goal function is minimized using a deterministic algorithm. The suspension with optimized bushings rates fulfils desired elastokinematic criteria together with a defined dynamic criterion, describing the so-called rolling comfort. An event of car passing over short road bump is considered as dynamic conditions. The numerical example deals with an actual middle-class passenger car with 5-rod suspension at the front driven axle. Estimation of the models parameters and their verification were carried out on the basis of indoor and outdoor experiments. The proposed optimization procedure can be used to improve the suspension design or development cycle.
Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites are one of the most promising materials for hypersonic infrared windows and domes due to their excellent optical transmittance and mechanical properties. In this study, influence of the calcination temperature of Y2O3-MgO nanopowders on the microstructure, IR transmittance, and hardness of Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites was investigated. It was found that the calcination temperature is related to the presence of residual intergranular pores and grain size after spark plasma sintering. The nanopowders calcined at 1000°C exhibits the highest infrared transmittance (82.3% at 5.3 μm) and hardness (9.99 GPa). These findings indicated that initial particle size and distribution of the nanopowders are important factors determining the optical and mechanical performances of Y2O3-MgO nanocomposites.
Inexpensive synthesis of electroceramic materials is required for efficient energy storage. Here the design of a scalable process, flame spray pyrolysis (FSP), for synthesis of size-controlled nanomaterials is investigated focusing on understanding the role of air entrainment (AE) during their aerosol synthesis with emphasis on battery materials. The AE into the enclosed FSP reactor is analysed quantitatively by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and calculated temperatures are verified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Various Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) particle compositions are made and characterized by N2 adsorption, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction while the electrochemical performance of LTO is tested at various charging rates. Increasing AE decreases recirculation in the enclosing tube leading to lower reactor temperatures and particle concentrations by air dilution as well as shorter and narrower residence time distributions. As a result, particle growth by coagulation - coalescence decreases leading to smaller primary particles that are mostly pure LTO exhibiting high C-rate performance with more than 120 mAh/g galvanostatic specific charge at 40C, outperforming commercial LTO. The effect of AE on FSP-made particle characteristics is demonstrated also in combustion synthesis of LiFePO4 and ZrO2.
In Western music culture instruments have been developed according to unique instrument acoustical features based on types of excitation, resonance, and radiation. These include the woodwind, brass, bowed and plucked string, and percussion families of instruments. On the other hand, instrument performance depends on musical training, and music listening depends on perception of instrument output. Since musical signals are easier to understand in the frequency domain than the time domain, much effort has been made to perform spectral analysis and extract salient parameters, such as spectral centroids, in order to create simplified synthesis models for musical instrument sound synthesis. Moreover, perceptual tests have been made to determine the relative importance of various parameters, such as spectral centroid variation, spectral incoherence, and spectral irregularity. It turns out that the importance of particular parameters depends on both their strengths within musical sounds as well as the robustness of their effect on perception. Methods that the author and his colleagues have used to explore timbre perception are: 1) discrimination of parameter reduction or elimination; 2) dissimilarity judgments together with multidimensional scaling; 3) informal listening to sound morphing examples. This paper discusses ramifications of this work for sound synthesis and timbre transposition.