Magnetite nanoparticles have become a promising material for scientific research. Among numerous technologies of their synthesis, co-precipitation seems to be the most convenient, less time-consuming and cheap method which produces fine and pure iron oxide particles applicable to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to investigate how the co-precipitation synthesis parameters, such as temperature and base volume, influence the magnetite nanoparticles ability to separate heavy metal ions. The synthesis were conducted at nine combinations of different ammonia volumes - 8 cm3, 10 cm3, 15 cm3 and temperatures - 30°C, 60°C, 90°C for each ammonia volume. Iron oxides synthesized at each combination were examined as an adsorbent of seven heavy metals: Cr(VI), Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The representative sample of magnetite was characterized using XRD, SEM and BET methods. It was observed that more effective sorbent for majority of ions was produced at 30°C using 10 cm3 of ammonia. The characterization of the sample produced at these reaction conditions indicate that pure magnetite with an average crystallite size of 23.2 nm was obtained (XRD), the nanosized crystallites in the sample were agglomerated (SEM) and the specific surface area of the aggregates was estimated to be 55.64 m2·g-1 (BET). The general conclusion of the work is the evidence that magnetite nanoparticles have the ability to adsorb heavy metal ions from the aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of the process depends on many factors such as kind of heavy metal ion or the synthesis parameters of the sorbent.
The presented article describes the relationship between lithological and facies development of reservoir rocks in the area of the roof elevation of the Weissliegend sandstones, with a particular emphasis on the influence of elevation on the occurrence of low mineralization zones in the deposit area. To illustrate the variability of the deposit parameters, closely related to the facies and lithological conditions of the host rocks, three-dimensional lithological and geochemical models for two research areas were developed using the geostatistical methods and based on field observations and the sampling of the deposit. The research area includes parts of the Northern Elevation of Rudna and the surrounding depressions within the boundaries of the Sieroszowice and Rudna deposits. Based on cross-sections of the 3D models, a different deposit formation in the roof elevation area of sandstone formations has been characterized; the lithological profile is defined as „atypical” due to the absence of a copper-bearing shale series, the most characteristic layer for copper ore deposits in the Fore -Sudetic monocline. Large variations in the shape of the deposit and the irregular boundaries of both balance mineralization and enclaves of gangue have been confirmed. The presence of large-scale enclaves of igneous rock in the entire profile of the Lower Zechstein rocks (areas without the balance copper mineralization) and small areas of gangue (sandstone) enriched with anhydrite binders adjacent to the parts of balance deposit located in argillaceous sandstone has been revealed. The possibility of the occurrence of gangue, in the area of the roof elevation of the Weissliegend sandstones directly adjacent to the border with calcareous dolomite, and irregular gangue partings in sandstone formations in the balance deposit was indicated. In addition, small areas of strong enrichment in Cu sulphides were observed in the contact zones between sulphate and clay binders in the Weissliegend sandstone series.
Perinatal calf mortality in dairy herds has been reported worldwide. The etiology of stillbirth is multifactorial, and can be caused by various species of bacteria and environmental factors. Among them some potential pathogens from the Mollicutes class such as Mycoplasma (M.) spp. and Ureaplasma (U.) diversum can be isolated from the bovine genital tract and other organs of the suspected cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the bacteria belonging to the Molli- cutes class i.e. M. bovis, M. bovigenitalium, M. canadense, M. canis, M. arginini, M. bovirhinis, M. dispar, M. alkalescens and U. diversum could have an impact on perinatal calf mortality in selected Polish dairy farms. The material was: 121 stillborn calves (SB), 21 live born calves (C) and 131 cows (dams) from 30 Polish Holstein-Friesian herds. Samples were examined from all the SB calves’ and six control euthanized calves’ abomasal contents and lung samples collected during necropsy, and from the dams’ serum and placenta. In dams the serological ELISA, and in calves and placenta samples molecular PCR/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, methods were used. Screening of dams’ sera for antibodies to M. bovis (ELISA) showed seven dams positive for M. bovis, whereas none of the nine examined Mollicutes microorganisms were detected in the placenta and calves.
The aim of the conducted research was to determine the possibilities of using the biomass of macroalgae obtained from Puck Bay during May-September season in biogas production process. Model respirometry chambers were used to determine the amount of produced biogas and examine its quality composition. Depending on the month in which the algal biomass was obtained, the experiments were divided into five stages. In each stage, the effectiveness of the biogas production process was tested for the applied loads in model fermentation chambers in the range from 1.0 kg DOM/m3 · d to 3.0 kg DOM/m3 · d. During the experiments it was found that the efficiency of biogas production varied from 205 dm3/kg DOM to 407 dm3/kg DOM depending on the month of the vegetation season and the applied organic matter load in the chamber. Methane content was very high and ranged from 63% to 74%.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of advanced oxidation process with the use of Fenton’s reaction on the effectiveness of anaerobic treatment of wastewaters originating from the wood industry that were characterized by a high concentration of formaldehyde. Experiments were established to analyze changes in COD content and in the concentration of formaldehyde in treated wastewaters, additional analyses were carried out to assay quantitative and qualitative changes in the biogas produced. The first stage of the experiment involved analyses of the effectiveness of the tested wastewaters treatment only in the process of methane fermentation. At the second stage of the experiment, the biological process was preceded by chemical pre-treatment of wastewaters with Fenton’s reagent. The conducted study proved that the investigated variants of chemical pre-treatment of wastewaters had a significant effect on increasing the total biogas production. In contrast, no significant effect of the applied technology was demonstrated on changes in the concentration of the analyzed contaminants in the treated wastewaters.
Results of research on the hazard posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the dusts emitted from motor vehicle braking systems have been presented. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of chemical compounds that pose a serious danger to the human health, chiefly because of their carcinogenic properties. Investigations into the issue of environmental pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated by motor vehicle traffic were carried out in connection with the work being done at PIMOT on systems to reduce dust emission from motor vehicle braking systems. The investigations included determination of PAH contents of the dust emitted from vehicle braking systems as well as the PAH concentrations in the indoor air in a room with the stand for testing dust emissions from braking systems and in the duct to carry away gases from that room. Moreover, the PAH contents of soil were measured in the context of location of the soil sampling points in relation to traffic routes. The PAH contents were measured in Warsaw and in Zabrze. The investigation results confirmed that PAHs considered as being most harmful to the human health due to their carcinogenic properties were actually present in the dusts emitted from braking systems. The PAH contents of soil were found to be very sensitive to the location of the soil sampling points in relation to traffic routes and this is a confirmation of the thesis that motor traffic is an important source of environmental pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Introduction: Interventional cardiology (IC) is a rapidly expanding fi eld of medicine. Medical studies should provide students the necessary level of knowledge about new techniques in IC. The aim of the study was to assess the medical students’ knowledge about various new areas of IC. Material and methods: Self-designed questionnaire was used to assess student’s knowledge. It contained 31 questions. Th e initial 3 questions concerned general information, the remaining ones were related to diff erent IC techniques: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), Bioresorbable Vascular Scaff old (BVS), percutaneous mitral regurgitation repair methods, Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion (LAAO), Renal DeNervation (RDN), Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty (BAV) and Atrial Septal Defect/Persistent Foramen Ovale (ASD/PFO). One point for each correct answer was awarded. Results: In our study participated 104 students. Mean score was 15.9 ± 5.8 points. 24% of participants were 3rd year students, 38% — 4th, 20% — 5th and 18% — 6th. Th ere was no diff erences in level of knowledge between students of diff erent years of studies (p = 0.2). Students from Students Research Groups (SRG) achieved higher score in comparison with students no attending SRG (19.3 ± 6.3 vs 13.3 ± 3.7; p <0.001) as well as students interested in cardiology comparison with other (19.6 ± 5.9 vs 13.0 ± 3.8; p <0.001). Students from SRG and interested in cardiology reached also higher results in practically every area of IC in comparison with other. Conclusions: Participants have insuffi cient, outdated and incomplete knowledge of new methods in IC. Th ere was no signifi cant diff erence in students of diff erent years of studies. Students belonging to cardiological SRG and interested in cardiology have greater knowledge in IC.