This paper addresses the tensile and flexural strength of HPC (high performance concrete). The aim of the paper is to analyse the efficiency of models proposed in different codes. In particular, three design procedures from: the ACI 318 , Eurocode 2  and the Model Code 2010  are considered. The associations between design tensile strength of concrete obtained from these three codes and compressive strength are compared with experimental results of tensile strength and flexural strength by statistical tools. Experimental results of tensile strength were obtained in the splitting test. Based on this comparison, conclusions are drawn according to the fit between the design methods and the test data. The comparison shows that tensile strength and flexural strength of HPC depend on more influential factors and not only compressive strength.
Hydraulic fracturing of rocks boosts the production rate by increasing the fracture-face surface area through the use of a pressurized liquid. Complex stress distribution and magnitude are the main factors that hinder the use of information gathered from in situ hydraulic fracturing in other locations. Laboratory tests are a good method for precisely determining the characteristics of these processes. One of the most important parameters is breakdown pressure, defined as the wellbore pressure necessary to induce a hydraulic fracture. Therefore, the main purpose of this investigation is to verify fracture resistance of rock samples fractured with the assistance of the most popular industry fluids. The experiments were carried out using a stand designed specifically for laboratory hydraulic fracturing. Repeatable results with a relative error within the range of 6-11% prove that the experimental methodology was correct. Moreover, the obtained results show that fracturing pressure depends significantly on fluid type. In the case of a water test, the fracturing pressure was 7.1±0.4 MPa. A similar result was achieved for slickwater, 7.5±0.7 MPa; however, a much lower value (4.7±0.5 MPa) was registered in the case of carbon dioxide.
Light-weight Self-Compacting Concrete (LWSCC) might be the answer to the increasing construction requirements of slenderer and more heavily reinforced structural elements. However there are limited studies to prove its ability in real construction projects. In conjunction with the traditional methods, artificial intelligent based modeling methods have been applied to simulate the non-linear and complex behavior of concrete in the recent years. Twenty one laboratory experimental investigations on the mechanical properties of LWSCC; published in recent 12 years have been analyzed in this study. The collected information is used to investigate the relationship between compressive strength, elasticity modulus and splitting tensile strength in LWSCC. Analytically proposed model in ANFIS is verified by multi factor linear regression analysis. Comparing the estimated results, ANFIS analysis gives more compatible results and is preferred to estimate the properties of LWSCC.
Recycling construction and demolition waste not only reduces project costs; and saves natural resources, but also solves the environmental threat caused by construction waste disposal. In this paper, C25 waste road concrete is used as an experimental material, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of C25 RAC whose coarse aggregate replacement rate is 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% are tested under the condition that the water-to-cement ratio is 0.47, 0.55 and 0.61. The results show: (1) the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength decrease with the increase of RAC; (2) for concrete with the same water-to-cement ratio, when the coarse aggregate replacement rate changes from 0% to 50%, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of RAC changes slightly. When the coarse aggregate replacement rate changes from 50% to 100%, the uniaxial compression strength and tensile splitting strength of RAC decreases rapidly
To improve mechanical properties and increasing useful life of metal pieces, different methods of welding are used for repairing surface crack of metal pieces. In this research, performance of flame welding method by spraying pure iron powder evaluated for repairing surface grooves of structural steel. First, four specimens including one control specimen and other three specimens grooved specimens in depth of 1mm and in length of 12.5mm and groove width in the sizes of 0.5, 0.75 and 1mm.were prepared then, powder melted using oxyacetylene reducing flame and spraying iron powder in the flame path and attached to the inner surface of the groove and finally, the specimen repaired. Results showed that after repairing surface groove, tensile strength of the repaired specimens were reached to the tensile strength of control specimen with the margin of 2.5%.
In this study, high performance magnesium-yttria nanocomposite’s room temperature, strength and ductility were significantly enhanced by the dispersion of nano-sized nickel particles using powder blending and a microwave sintering process. The strengthening effect of the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles was consistent up to 100°C and then it gradually diminished with further increases in the test temperature. The ductility of the magnesium-yttria nanocomposite remained unaffected by the dispersed nano-sized nickel particles up to 100°C. Impressively, it was enhanced at 150°C and above, leading to the possibility of the near net shape fabrication of the nanocomposite at a significantly low temperature.
Mechanical and technological properties of castings made from 3xx.x alloys depend mainly on properly performed process of melting and casting, structure of a casting and mould, as well as possible heat treatment. Precipitation processes occurring during the heat treatment of the silumins containing additives of Cu and/or Mg have effect on improvement of mechanical properties of the material, while choice of parameters of solutioning and ageing treatments belongs to objectives of research work performed by a number of authors. Shortened heat treatment, which is presented in the paper assures suitable mechanical properties (Rm), and simultaneously doesn’t cause any increase of production costs of a given component due to long lasting operations of the solutioning and ageing. Results of the research concern effects of the solutioning and ageing parameters on the Rm tensile strength presented in form of the second degree polynomial and illustrated in spatial diagrams. Performed shortened heat treatment results in considerable increase of the Rm tensile strength of the 320.0 alloy as early as after 1 hour of the solutioning and 2 hours of the ageing performed in suitable.
Metal pieces wear out due to variable loading, because cracks formed on their surface of them. In order to increase useful life of metal pieces with the help of different methods of welding, surface cracks are repaired. In this research, performance of the diffusion welding of pure iron powder through magnetic induction evaluated for repairing structural steel surface cracks. First, four specimens prepared including one control specimen and other three specimens grooved specimens in length of 6.25mm and in depth of 1mm and groove width in the sizes of 0.5, 0.75 and 1mm. Then by a coil, the induced current created in the piece surface. After crossing the current, the powder melted and the groove repaired due to diffusion welding. To prevent oxidation, the atmosphere inside the coil filled with argon gas. The results show that after repairing surface groove, tensile strength of the repaired specimens reached to the tensile strength of control specimen with the margin of 7.5%.
The paper presents the results of research of impact strength of aluminum alloy EN AC-44200 based composite materials reinforced with alumina particles. The research was carried out applying the materials produced by the pressure infiltration method of ceramic preforms made of Al2O3 particles of 3-6m with the liquid EN AC-44200 Al alloy. The research was aimed at determining the composite resistance to dynamic loads, taking into account the volume of reinforcing particles (from 10 to 40% by volume) at an ambient of 23°C and at elevated temperatures to a maximum of 300°C. The results of this study were referred to the unreinforced matrix EN AC-44200 and to its hardness and tensile strength. Based on microscopic studies, an analysis and description of crack mechanics of the tested materials were performed. Structural analysis of a fracture surface, material structures under the crack surfaces of the matrix and cracking of the reinforcing particles were performed.
Very well-known advantages of aluminum alloys, such as low mass, good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, machining-ability, high recycling potential and low cost are considered as a driving force for their development, i.e. implementation in new applications as early as in stage of structural design, as well as in development of new technological solutions. Mechanical and technological properties of the castings made from the 3xx.x group of alloys depend mainly on correctly performed processes of melting and casting, design of a mould and cast element, and a possible heat treatment. The subject-matter of this paper is elaboration of a diagrams and dependencies between parameters of dispersion hardening (temperatures and times of solutioning and ageing treatments) and mechanical properties obtained after heat treatment of the 356.0 (EN AC AlSi7Mg) alloy, enabling full control of dispersion hardening process to programming and obtaining a certain technological quality of the alloy in terms of its mechanical properties after performed heat treatments. Obtained results of the investigations have enabled obtainment of a dependencies depicting effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on the mechanical properties (Rm, A5 and KC impact strength) of the investigated alloy. Spatial diagrams elaborated on the basis of these dependencies enable us to determine tendencies of changes of the mechanical properties of the 356.0 alloy in complete analyzed range of temperature and duration of the solutioning and ageing operations.
Plastic obtained from the discarded computers, televisions, refrigerators, and other electronic devices is termed as e-plastic waste. E-plastic waste is non-biodegradable waste. This paper focuses to investigate the replacement of fine aggregate with plastic aggregate obtained from e-plastic. The paper presents a detailed comparison of concrete properties (i.e.: compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, density and workability) for normal concrete and concrete containing e-plastic fine aggregates. The testing was conducted according to the ASTM standards. 28-day Compressive, Flexural and Split tensile strengths were determined. In addition to the effect of e-plastic fine aggregate, silica fume is added as an admixture to find the effect on strengths. Authors have performed a compressive, flexural and tensile test of concrete mix with various percentages of e-plastic aggregates (i.e., 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and silica fume (i.e.: 0, 5 and 10%) and concrete densities are also considered. It has been concluded that an increase in the e-plastic fine aggregate results in reduction in densities, compressive, flexural and tensile strength values. However, when we add silica fume to the concrete mixture it leads to strength values similar to the control mixture. The optimum obtained concrete blend contained 5% e-plastic fine aggregates and 10% silica fume. The addition of silica fume in concrete mixtures increases the 28-day compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. Moreover, the density of concrete decreases with the increase in the e-plastic aggregates.
The paper deals with the accuracy of measurements of strains (elongation and necking) and stresses (tensile strength) in static room-temperature tensile strength tests. We present methods for calculating measurement errors and uncertainties, and discuss the determination of the limiting errors of the quantities measured for circular and rectangular specimens, which is illustrated with examples.
Aluminium based metal matrix composite (Al-MMC’s) are much popular in the field like automobile and aerospace industries, because of its ease of fabrication process and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, Al-Zn-Mg alloy composite reinforced with 3, 6 and 9 v % of zircon sand was synthesised by stir casting technique. The microstructure of the composites revealed uniform distribution of reinforced particles. Hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of Al-Zn-Mg alloy/zircon sand composite were found to increase with increase in v % percentage of zircon sand. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis of wear tested sample surface of composites revealed no evidence of plastic deformation of matrix phase. Particle pulls out and abrasive wear was the common feature observed from all the composites.
In this study, ODS ferritic stainless steels were fabricated using a commercial alloy powder, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were studied to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications. Mechanical alloying and uniaxial hot pressing processes were employed to produce the ODS ferritic stainless steels. It was revealed that oxide particles in the ODS stainless steels were composed of Y-Si-O, Y-Ti-Si-O, and Y-Hf-Si-O complex oxides were observed depending on minor alloying elements, Ti and Hf. The ODS ferritic stainless steel with a Hf addition presented ultra-fine grains with uniform distributions of fine complex oxide particles which located in grains and on the grain boundaries. These favorable microstructures led to superior tensile properties than commercial stainless steel and ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition at elevated temperature.
In the knock-out process, as well as in the preliminary phase of moulding sand reclamation, the issue of energy demand for the process of crushing used sand agglutinations, preferably to single grains, is particularly important. At present, numerical values of moulding sand impact resistance, which would allow energy-related aspects of this process to be forecast, are not known, as such research has not been carried out. It seems that impact resistance tested on very small cross-section samples, which allows us to very precisely reveal some unique features of a moulding sand with organic and inorganic binders, is an important parameter, which so far has not been taken into account for evaluation of mechanical properties of moulding sands. Preliminary attempts to determine impact resistance of moulding sands have been carried out as part of own research of the author. The conducted investigations aimed at determining the relationships between the obtained values of tensile strength and impact resistance of moulding sands. In addition, the effect of holding samples at temperatures of 100oC, 200oC, 300oC on the value of impact resistance was determined, both for sands made with fresh and with reclaimed sand grains.
Heat treatment of a casting elements poured from silumins belongs to technological processes aimed mainly at change of their mechanical properties in solid state, inducing predetermined structural changes, which are based on precipitation processes (structural strengthening of the material), being a derivative of temperature and duration of solutioning and ageing operations. The subject-matter of this paper is the issue concerning implementation of a heat treatment process, basing on selection of dispersion hardening parameters to assure improvement of technological quality in terms of mechanical properties of a clamping element of energy network suspension, poured from hypoeutectic silumin of the LM25 brand; performed on the basis of experimental research program with use of the ATD method, serving to determination of temperature range of solutioning and ageing treatments. The heat treatment performed in laboratory conditions on a component of energy network suspension has enabled increase of the tensile strength Rm and the hardness HB with about 60-70% comparing to the casting without the heat treatment, when the casting was solutioned at temperature 520 o C for 1 hour and aged at temperature 165 o C during 3 hours.
In this paper an attempt to determine the relationship between the electrical resistivity and the tensile strength and hardness of cast iron of carbon equivalent in the range from 3.93% to 4.48%. Tests were performed on the gray cast iron for 12 different melts with different chemical composition. From one melt poured 6 samples. Based on the study of mechanical and electro-resistive determined variation characteristics of tensile strength, hardness and resistivity as a function of the carbon equivalent. Then, regression equations were developed as power functions describing the relationship between the resistivity of castings and their tensile strength and hardness. It was found a high level of regression equations to measuring points, particularly with regard to the relationship Rm=f(ρ). The obtained preliminary results indicate the possibility of application of the method of the resistance to rapid diagnostic casts on the production line, when we are dealing with repeatable production, in this case non variable geometry of the product for which it has been determinated before a regression equation.
The present study addresses the utilization of induction furnace steel slag which is an anthropogenic waste, for enhancing the mechanical properties of a commercial aluminium alloy A356. Different weight percentage (3wt%, 6wt%, 9wt%, and 12wt%) of steel slag particles in 1 to 10 μm size range were used as reinforcing particles in aluminium alloy A356 matrix. The composites were prepared through stir casting technique. The results revealed an improvement in mechanical properties (i.e. microhardness and tensile strength) and wear resistance with an increase in weight percentage of the steel slag particles. This research work shows promising results for the utilization of the steel slag for enhancing the properties of aluminium alloy A356 at no additional cost while assisting at same time in alleviating land pollution.
This experimental study reveals the effects of CaF2, FeMn and NiO additions to the base fluxes on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the weld metal. The aim of this study is to develop suitable flux for mild steel for high tensile strength, impact strength and ductility. Bead on plate welds were made using submerged arc welding process. Mathematical model for percentage elongation and UTS of mild steel welds were made. The elements transfer to the welds have been correlated with the above mechanical performance characteristics. The effect of oxygen content on weld elongation and UTS also has been deduced. This study shows that CaF2 and NiO are the significant factors for tensile strength while FeMn is not significant for tensile strength. However, for elongation besides CaF2, the interaction of CaF2 and FeMn was also found significant. The effects of basicity index of the flux and carbon equivalent of the welds on tensile strength and percentage elongation of the welds have also been evaluated.
In the present study, butt joints of aluminum (Al) 8011-H18 and pure copper (Cu) were produced by friction stir welding (FSW) and the effect of plunge depth on surface morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The welds were produced by varying the plunge depth in a range from 0.1 mm to 0.25 mm. The defect-free joints were obtained when the Cu plate was fixed at the advancing side. It was found that less plunging depth gives better tensile properties compare to higher plunging depth because at higher plunging depth local thinning occurs at the welded region. Good tensile properties were achieved at plunge depth of 0.2 mm and the tensile strength was found to be higher than the strength of the Al (weaker of the two base metals). Microstructure study revealed that the metal close to copper side in the Nugget Zone (NZ) possessed lamellar alternating structure. However, mixed structure of Cu and Al existed in the aluminum side of NZ. Higher microhardness values were witnessed at the joint interfaces resulting from plastic deformation and the presence of intermetallics.
This paper presents the results on the effects of die-casting process on the strength parameters of castings of the aluminium AlSi9Cu3 alloy belonging to the group of EN AB-46000, made on renovated high pressure die-casting machine. Specimens for quality testing were taken from the places of the casting most loaded during the service. The aim of a research was to prove how the new die-casting process control capabilities influence on the tensile strength of the cast material defined as a value of the breaking force of the specimens. It has been found that it is possible to specify a set of recommended settings valves of second (II) and third (III) phase, which are responsible for filling the metal mould on die-casting pressure machine. From the point of view of the finished cast element, it was noticed that exceeding the prescribed values of valve settings does not bring further benefits and even causes unnecessary overload and reduce the durability of the mold. Moreover, it was noticed that reduction of the predetermined setting of the second phase (II) valve leads to the formation of casting defects again.
Ductile iron casts with a higher silicone content were produced. The austempering process of high silicone ductile iron involving different austempering times was studied and the results presented. The results of metallographical observations and tensile strength tests were offered. The obtained results point to the fact that the silicone content which is considered as acceptable in the literature may in fact be exceeded. The issue is viewed as requiring further research.
The results presented in this paper are a continuation of the previously published studies. The results of hest treatment of ductile iron with content 3,66%Si and 3,80% Si were produced. The experimental castings were subjected to austempering process for time 30, 60 and 90 minutes at temperature 300o C. The mechanical properties of heat treated specimens were studied using tensile testing and hardness measurement, while microstructures were evaluated with conventional metallographic observations. It was again stated that austempering of high silicone ferritic matrix ductile iron allowed producing ADI-type cast iron with mechanical properties comparable with standard ADI.