One of the main human goals is to achieve the state of happiness. Almost all people ask themselves the question of how to attain this goal. For thousands of years, philosophers and spiritual leaders and, nowadays, researchers representing various disciplines of social sciences, have been searching for the right answer to this question. One of the dilemmas intertwined in the debate about the essence of happiness relates to the tension expressed by the question “to be or to have”; the tension between the spiritual and the material world; between sacrum and profanum. Can accumulation of money and material possessions make us happy? Starting with the message passed on by a German psychoanalyst Erich Fromm in his essay “To Have or to Be” and the wisdom derived from the classic philosophical and religious works, I will attempt to define the relation between the state of happiness and the attachment to money and possessions or the attachment to social and transcendent values. This difficult, yet crucial, problem will be analyzed in the context of the current psychological knowledge related to the emotional and cognitive consequences of taking a materialistic approach to life. Erich Fromm and other thinkers who had lived hundreds of years before him, suggested that greed and pursuit of material possessions did not appease the human longing for happiness. The latest experimental research, conducted by psychologists, economists and scholars representing other disciplines of science, seem to strongly confirm these assumptions.
The article is an attempt to collate and present the existing works of Polish geographers who focused on public space in cities, taking two main theoretical and methodological approaches – objective and subjective – under consideration. The article discusses different definitions of the analysed term in an interdisciplinary context as well as indicates main aspects and research directions in geographical studies along with the scholars representing them. Moreover, the authors make an attempt to evaluate the existing state of the art and try to set future perspectives for geographical studies on public space in cities. The article finishes with the authors’ conclusions regarding the necessity to continue the research on public space and the role Polish geographers shall play in it.
Oxy-fuel combustion (OFC) belongs to one of the three commonly known clean coal technologies for power generation sector and other industry sectors responsible for CO2emissions (e.g., steel or cement production). The OFC capture technology is based on using high-purity oxygen in the combustion process instead of atmospheric air. Therefore flue gases have a high concentration of CO2- Due to the limited adiabatic temperature of combustion some part of CO2must be recycled to the boiler in order to maintain a proper flame temperature. An integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant constitutes a system consisting of the following technological modules: boiler, steam cycle, air separation unit, cooling water and water treatment system, flue gas quality control system and CO2processing unit. Due to the interconnections between technological modules, energy, exergy and ecological analyses require a system approach. The paper present the system approach based on the 'input-output' method to the analysis of the: direct energy and material consumption, cumulative energy and exergy consumption, system (local and cumulative) exergy losses, and thermoecological cost. Other measures like cumulative degree of perfection or index of sustainable development are also proposed. The paper presents a complex example of the system analysis (from direct energy consumption to thermoecological cost) of an advanced integrated OFC power plant.
Complex structural engineering projects that involve information-gathering and decision-makingprocesses need to be approached with appropriate systems and tools. As transactional databasesare found to be insufficient for this purpose, engineers are adopting multidimensional informationsystems that have been successfully used in other areas of management, especially business.
Marine governance is an essential way of achieving the objectives of sustainable development. It ought to be understood as the process of planning, as well as decision-making and management at the national and regional levels taking into account the global ocean as an ecological unity. The process of decision-making is closely interrelated with the regional and transnational cross-border cooperation. The adoption of the EU Directive establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning (hereinafter: MSP Directive) plays an important role in developing of marine spatial planning in Europe by promoting MSP instruments. MSP Directive requires all coastal EU Member States to prepare cross-sectoral maritime spatial plans by 2021. The development of spatial plans for Polish marine areas was started in 2013. The MSP legal bases are included in the Marine Areas of the Republic of Poland and Maritime Administration Act of 1991 amended in 2015 and its implementing regulations.
This article takes up Adam Dziadek’s somatic approach to literature to explore the theme of erotic experience in two poems by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, ‘L’amour Cosaque’ and ‘Amore profane’. With the help of inputs from gender studies and the contemporary theories of the subject it has been possible to profi le the ‘I’ of the poems as a deeply fragmented and sexually ambiguous subject, and, upon the evidence of the elusive autobiographical details woven into the text, as a subject suspended in a liminal space, between the real and the fi ctive world. After analyzing the body represented in the text, both perfect and decrepit, as well as traces of the poet’s carnality that interfere with the text and the reader’s sense of his own soma the article arrives at the following conclusion: in Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz’s lyrics the body seems to project its impressions and experiences onto reality, thus blurring the border between the inside and the outside.
The concept of ecosystem services becomes more and more popular in regulation of the environmental protection. One of the premises of that concept is treatment of a human and human activity as an integral part of an ecosystem. Interrelations between human activity and ecosystem can be described through the concept of ecosystem services. A certain degree of commodification of natural environment which is immanently connected with the concept of ecosystem services can become useful as a tool of assessing the impact of human activities on ecosystem as well as regulating that impact. Marine protection law is a good example of attempts to introduce the interrelated concepts of ecosystem approach and ecosystem services into functioning of the regulatory schemes.
The term positive psychology has recently entered the field of Second Language Acquisition. The article explains the meaning of the term, presents the definitions of positive psychology, its objectives and history. The key part of the article demonstrates the importance of positive psychology in the second language acquisition presenting many connections between the two fields. The author recommends that positive education is introduced in every school and every foreign language classroom.
Since psychology emerged as an independent field of knowledge, there has been no consensus as to how it should develop, either, in the idiographic or nomothetic way. In the course of time, due to a commitment to what was seen as objectivity in science, the nomothetic approach came to dominate psychology. Thus, researchers used mostly quantitative psychometric methods to establish general rules of human behaviour. In doing so, the essence of nomothetic research is to be extremely careful when interpreting results not to make a reasoning mistake such as the ecological fallacy, as may happen when a researcher draws conclusions about nature of the individual in the group based on average results of the whole group. In the article, we presented two methods for longitudinal research designs which address this problem, and give more idiographic information about participants; via the Reliable Change Index and the Modified Brinley Plot. Finally, we provide a IBM SPSS Statistics syntax automatizing the whole process of computation for these new features.