Impact of surface and volume modification and double filtration during pouring the moulds on basic mechanical properties and creep resistance of nickel superalloys IN-713C and MAR-247 in conditions of accelerated creep of castings made of post-production scrap of these alloys is evaluated in this paper. The conditions of initiation and propagation of cracks in the specimens were analysed with consideration of stereological properties of material macro- and microstructure. It has been proven that in the conditions of hightemperature creep at 980°C and at stress σ = 150 MPa, creep resistance of superalloy MAR-247 is more than 10 times higher than the creep resistance of IN-713C alloy. In case of IN-713C alloy, the creep resistance negligibly depends on macrograin sizes. But, the macrograin size considerably affects the time to failure of specimens made of alloy MAR-247. Creep resistance of specimens made of coarse grain material was 20% higher than the resistance of fine grain materials.
Nickel alloys belong to the group of most resistant materials when used under the extreme operating conditions, including chemically aggressive environment, high temperature, and high loads applied over a long period of time. Although in the global technology market one can find several standard cast nickel alloys, the vast majority of components operating in machines and equipment are made from alloys processed by the costly metalworking operations. Analysis of the available literature and own studies have shown that the use of casting technology in the manufacture of components from nickel alloys poses a lot of difficulty. This is due to the adverse technological properties of these alloys, like poor fluidity, high casting shrinkage, and above all, high reactivity of liquid metal with the atmospheric air over the bath and with the ceramic material of both the crucible and foundry mold. The scale of these problems increases with the expected growth of performance properties which these alloys should offer to the user. This article presents the results of studies of physico-chemical interactions that occur between theH282alloy melt and selected refractory ceramic materials commonly used in foundry. Own methodology for conducting micro-melts on a laboratory scale was elaborated and discussed. The results obtained have revealed that the alumina-based ceramics exhibits greater reactivity in contact with the H282 alloy melt than the materials based on zirconium compounds. In the conducted experiments, the ceramic materials based on zirconium silicate have proved to be a much better choice than the zirconia-silica mixture. Regardless of the type of the ceramic materials used, the time and temperature of their contact with the nickel alloy melt should always be limited to an absolutely necessary minimum required by the technological regime.
Superalloys show a good combination of mechanical strength and resistance to surface degradation under the influence of chemically active environments at high temperature. They are characterized by very high heat and creep resistance. Their main application is in gas turbines, chemical industry, and in all those cases where resistance to creep and the aggressive corrosion environment is required. Modern jet engines could never come into use if not for progress in the development of superalloys. Superalloys are based on iron, nickel and cobalt. The most common and the most interesting group includes superalloys based on nickel. They carry loads at temperatures well in excess of the eighty percent of the melting point. This group includes the H282 alloy, whose nominal chemical composition is as follows (wt%): Ni - base, Fe - max. 1.5%, Al - 1.5% Ti - 2.1%, C - 0.06% Co - 10% Cr - 20% Mo - 8.5%. This study shows the results of thermal analysis of the H282 alloy performed on a cast step block with different wall thickness. Using the results of measurements, changes in the temperature of H282 alloy during its solidification were determined, and the relationship dT / dt = f (t) was derived. The results of the measurements taken at different points in the cast step block allowed identifying a number of thermal characteristics of the investigated alloy and linking the size of the dendrites formed in a metal matrix (DAS) with the thermal effect of solidification. It was found that the time of solidification prolonged from less than ome minute at 10 mm wall thickness to over seven minutes at the wall thickness of 44 mm doubled the value of DAS.
The paper presents the results of studies to determine the effect of complex surface and bulk modification and double filtration during mould pouring on the stereological parameters of macrostructure and mechanical properties of castings made from the post-production waste IN-713C and the MAR-247 nickel alloys. The evaluation covered the number of grains per 1mm2 of the sample surface area, the average area of grains and the shape index, hardness HB, tensile strength and resistance to high temperature creep. The results indicate the possibility of controlling the stereological parameters of macrostructure through application of several variants of the modification, controlling in this way also different low- and high-temperature properties. The positive effect of double filtration of the alloy during mould pouring on the metallurgical quality and mechanical properties of castings has also been emphasized.
The paper presents the results of research on the impact of impurities in the feed ingots (master heat) on the precipitation of impurities in the ATD thermal analysis probe castings. This impurities occur mostly inside shrinkage cavities and in interdendritic space. Additionally, insufficient filtration of liquid alloy during pouring promotes the transfer of impurities into the casting. The technology of melting superalloys in vacuum furnace prevents the removal of slag from the surface of molten metal. Because of that, the effective method of quality assessment of feed ingots in order to evaluate the existence of impurities is needed. The effectiveness of ATD analysis in evaluation of purity of feed ingots was researched. In addition the similarities of non-metallic inclusions in feed ingots and in castings were observed.
Paper presents the results of evaluation of heat resistance and specific heat capacity of MAR-M-200, MAR-M-247 and Rene 80 nickel superalloys. Heat resistance was evaluated using cyclic method. Every cycle included heating in 1100°C for 23 hours and cooling for 1 hour in air. Microstructure of the scale was observed using electron microscope. Specific heat capacity was measured using DSC calorimeter. It was found that under conditions of cyclically changing temperature alloy MAR-M-247 exhibits highest heat resistance. Formed oxide scale is heterophasic mixture of alloying elements, under which an internal oxidation zone was present. MAR-M-200 alloy has higher specific heat capacity compared to MAR-M-247. For tested alloys in the temperature range from 550°C to 800°C precipitation processes (γ′, γ′′) are probably occurring, resulting in a sudden increase in the observed heat capacity.
The paper presents a research results concerning impact of volume modification (ceramic filter containning cobalt aluminate and hafniumpowder) and simultaneous surface and volume modification on solidification and stereological parameters of macrostructure of castingsmade from post-production scrap of nickel superalloy IN-713C. Research included investigation of the influence of chemical compositionon the temperature Tliq i Tsol and evaluation of following macrostructure parameters: the number of grains per mm2, average grain area andshape coefficient. Results indicate high influence of carbon content on Tliq. Macrostructure of sample castings indicate positive effect of surface and volume modification, however impact of surface modification is more pronounced.
The paper presents results of calorimetric studies of foundry nickel superalloys: IN100, IN713C, Mar - M247 and ŻS6 U. Particular attention was paid to determination of phase transiti ons temperatures during heating and cooling. The samples were heated to a temperature of 1500°C with a rate of 10°C ⋅ min – 1 and then held at this temperature for 5 min. After a complete melting, the samples were cooled with the same rat e. Argon with a purity of 99.99% constituted the protective atmosphere. The sample was placed in an alundum crucible with a capacity of 0.45 cm 3 . Temperature and heat calibration was carried out based on the mel ting point of high- purity Ni. The tests were carried out by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a Multi HTC high -temperature calorimeter from Setaram. Based on the DSC curves, the following temperatures were determined: solidus and liquidus, dissolution and precipitation of the γ ’ phase, MC carbides and melting of the γ ’ /γ eutectic. In the temperature range of 100 -1100°C, specific heat capacity of the investigated superalloys was determined. It was found that the IN713C and IN100 alloys exhibit a higher specific heat while compared to the Mar - M247 and ŻS6 U alloys.
The primary microstructure of new Co-based superalloy of Co-20Ni-7Al-7W (at.%) type was showed in this article. The alloy was manufactured by induction melting in vacuum furnaces. This alloy is a part of new group of high-temperature materials based on Co solid solution and strengthened by coherent L12 phase similar to Ni-based superalloys with γʹ phase. The final form of Coss/L12 microstructure is obtained after fully heat treatment included homogenization, solutionizing and aging processes. But first step of heat treatment thermal parameters determination is characterization of primary microstructure of alloys after casting process with special attentions on segregations of alloying elements in solid solution and presences of structural elements such as eutectic areas, and other phases precipitations. In analysed case the relatively high homogeneity of chemical composition was expected especially in the case of W distribution, what was confirmed be SEM/EDS analysis in dendritic and interdendritic areas.
The analysis of influence of mould withdrawal rate on the solidification process of CMSX-4 single crystal castings produced by Bridgman method was presented in this paper. The predicted values of temperature gradient, solidification and cooling rate, were determined at the longitudinal section of casting blade withdrawn at rate from 1 to 6mm/min using ProCAST software. It was found that the increase of withdrawal rate of ceramic mould results in the decrease of temperature gradient and the growth of cooling rate, along blade height. Based on results of solidification parameter G/R (temperature gradient/solidification rate), maximum withdrawal rate of ceramic mould (3.5 mm/min), which ensures lower susceptibility to formation process of new grain defects in single crystal, was established. It was proved that these defects can be formed in the bottom part of casting at withdrawal rate of 4 mm/min. The increase of withdrawal rate to 5 and 6 mm/min results in additional growth of susceptibility of defects formation along the whole height of airfoil.
The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc.), which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines), it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.
Paper presents the assessment of impact of heat treatment on durability in low-cycle fatigue conditions (under constant load) in castings made using post-production scrap of MAR-247 and IN-713C superalloys. Castings were obtained using modification and filtration methods. Additionally, casting made of MAR-247 were subjected to heat treatment consisting of solution treatment and subsequent aging. During low-cycle fatigue test the cyclic creep process were observed. It was demonstrated that the fine-grained samples have significantly higher durability in test conditions and , at the same time, lower values of plastic deformation to rupture Δϵpl. It has been also proven that durability of fine-grained MAR-247 samples can be further raised by about 60% using aforementioned heat treatment.
Paper presents the results of ATD and DSC analysis of two superalloys used in casting of aircraft engine parts. The main aim of the research was to obtain the solidification parameters, especially Tsol and Tliq, knowledge of which is important for proper selection of casting and heat treatment parameters. Assessment of the metallurgical quality (presence of impurities) of the feed ingots is also a very important step in production of castings. It was found that some of the feed ingots delivered by the superalloy producers are contaminated by oxides located in shrinkage defects. The ATD analysis allows for quite precise interpretation of first stages of solidification at which solid phases with low values of latent heat of solidification are formed from the liquid. Using DSC analysis it is possible to measure precisely the heat values accompanying the phase changes during cooling and heating which, with knowledge of phase composition, permits to calculate the enthalpy of formation of specific phases like γ or γ′.