Water reaches a river in the form of surface runoff (precipitation that has not seeped into the ground) or underground outflow (groundwater). Both of these factors affect the erosion and river deposition processes that shape the river valley. Understanding them is crucial for effective river management.
The paper aims to present directions of transformation of riverside areas in Wrocław implemented in 2012-2018 as well as planned investments within Przedmieście Oławskie revitalization program. Przedmieście Oławskie, a quarter housing estate from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is another area being regenerated in Wrocław after Nadodrze. The article outlines projects defined in the Local Revitalization Program for the years 2016-2018, responding to the identified deficits in spatial, social, environmental and economic spheres. The program proposes various projects that will create conditions for further actions. The challenges posed before the revitalization process mean the necessity of undertaking various projects and flexible planning for many years ahead. One of the key actions is a redevelopment of degraded Oława riverfront, which will be an activity and recreation space not only for residents of densely built-up and devoid of green areas Przedmieście Oławskie but also residents of Wroclaw. Modernization of the more than a kilometer section of the wharf can be an impulse for the development of the whole river corridor, that will have high natural, landscape and recreational values. The article discusses the planning process, objectives, principles and methodology of planned activities.
The upper section of the Bystrzyca River has a character of trout and grayling zone of river. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fish in the upper section of the Bystrzyca River and attempt to evaluate angling pressure on fish in this section of river based on analysis of records of amateur fishing. To determine the fish composition the control fishing was conducted using electric fishing gear. The assessment of angling pressure was based on the analysis of 2135 records of fishing in the mountain type rivers in 2012 year, obtained from PAA Lublin. The brown trout and grayling were a dominant fish species in the upper section of the Bystrzyca River, and the first of them was present on the whole length of the river and had the highest average density. The changes of fish community along the river course from Salmonids lead to an increase of the share of Cyprinids fish has been observed. Analysis of records of ama-teur fish catch revealed that the upper section of the Bystrzyca River is under considerable of angling pressure and the most commonly fished species was brown trout. However, the properly carried fishery management on this section of river and the establishment of „no kill” zone allows for proper maintenance of the populations of fish species valuable for anglers.
The aim of the study was to determine the contamination transport condition with sediment in the Widawa River, which inflows to the Odra River below Wrocław city. The transport simulations have been performed by means of HEC-RAS model, which was calibrated. Study and geochemical analyses indicate that pollutions are cumulated mainly in sediment of grain size, less than 0,20 mm. It was stated that the main sources of contaminations occurring in the Widawa River bottoms are: superficial run-off, municipal and industrial wastes. Sediment bed quality from the Widawa River in selected cross-sections has been analyzed. Samples of suspended load were collected and divided into eight fractions, for which the phosphorus concentration P was calculated. Deposit particles less than 0,20 mm contained most phosphorus, i.e. 73% (3,52 ppm), and particles greater than 0,20 mm about 27% (1,30 ppm) for the whole sample volume. Relationship between the phosphorus concentration P and the sediment grain size was determined. Analysis showed that the initiation of contamination-sediment suspension in the Widawa River is well described by Engelund criterion. Simulations of the migration of pollutions together with deposits in the Widawa River showed that during average flow discharge, the transport intensity of pollution was equal 2 mg/s, and sediments 6 kg/s. In the present work the water quality of the Widawa River has been also presented.
The main objective of the study was to evaluate if macrophytes structure and trophic status of dam reservoir Kraśnik on a small lowland river Wyżnica are determined by phosphorous loadings. Studies were conducted seasonally in May, July and October during the years 2008-2009. Samples were taken at four sites: Site 1 - inflow of the Wyżnica River to pre-dam, Site 2 − pre-dam, Site 3 − dam reservoir and Site 4 - outflow of the Wyżnica River from dam reservoir. Physical and chemical parameters (temperature, Secchi disc depth, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total suspension, chlorophyll-a, TP and P-PO4) were measured in water samples. Together with water parameters there were estimated biomass of phytoplankton and species composition and biomass of emergent, floating-leaved and submerged macrophytes. Concentrations of TP, chlorophyll-a and Secchi disc depth were used to calculate trophic state index of Carlsson for dam reservoir and its pre-dam. Based on mean water current, mean residence time of water in dam reservoir and concentrations of TP and P-PO4 loadings (g m-2) flowing into dam reservoir with the Wyżnica River were calculated. The results showed visible negative effect of phosphorous loadings on both macrophytes composition and trophic state of the reservoir. The marked changes concerned soft vegetation. High P loadings (7.74 g m-2 of TP and 6.03 g m-2 P-PO4) during the spring of 2008 caused the disappearance of characeans meadows. In 2009, the presence of rigid hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum L.), the species typical for eutrophic lakes was noted. This unrooted submerged plant uptakes dissolved orthophosphates directly from the water column. Values of Carlsson index (51.4 ≤ TSI ≤ 68.2) indicate the eutrophic state of dam reservoir Kraśnik. During summer season in dam reservoir there were observed algal blooms (biomass of phytoplankton exceed 10 mg WW dm-3) and low water transparency (Secchi disc depth ranged from 0.4 to 0.65 m). During the two-year studies in dam reservoir Kraśnik a high reduction of P loadings, mostly dissolved orthophosphates was observed. Dependently on season, reduction of P-PO4 loadings ranged from 52% (July 2008) up to 91% (May 2009). The reduction of TP was lower and reached values from 15% (May 2008) to 48% (July 2009).
The heavy metal release experiments were conducted in the laboratory to examine the effects of 3 factors - pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature on the metal release from sediments taken from the Huangpu River. The metal concentrations in the dry sediments ranged from 0.030 to 0.296 mg g-1 for Cr, 0.021 to 0.097 mg g-1 for Ni, 0.014 to 0.219 mg g-1 for Cu, 0.035 mg to 0.521 mg g-1 for Zn, 0.0002 to 0.001 mg g-1 for Cd and 0.023 to 0.089 mg g-1 for Pb. Most of the metals found in the sediments were in the form of residual fraction, the exchangeable fraction consisted of only a small portion of total metals. The average dissolved metal concentrations in the overlying water during the 13-day period under different conditions were ranging from 0.82 to 1.93 μg L-1 for Cr, 1.08 to 4.19 μg L-1 for Ni, 40.79 to 82.28 μg L-1 for Cu, 20.30 to 29.96 μg L-1 for Zn, 1.57 to 4.07 μg L-1 for Cd, and 22.26 to 75.50 μg L-1 for Pb, respectively. Statistical interpretation of the data indicated that pH (7, 8, 9), dissolved oxygen DO (1.0 and 5.0 mg L-1) and temperature (4, 16, 25°C) had no significant effects on the heavy metal release under the studied conditions. Cu and Pb had the highest release flux, while Cd, Pb and Cu had higher mobility. The main factors controlling the metals release might be the inherent characters of metals and sediments.
The Brzanka Mountain Range in the Ciężkowickie Foothills has a dense river network. Unfortunately the contemporary maps contain only the names of some main rivers of the Brzanka Mountain Range. Local communities use the same set of names of rivers as cartographers, while studies in the historical geography of the Brzanka Mountain Range reveal a wealth of local hydronyms that have seemingly been forgotten. The article attempts both to reconstruct a set of hydronyms of the Brzanka Mountain Range and to explain their etymology. It shows that hydronyms change over time and that studies on local hydronyms can help restore the collection of the names of rivers in the Brzanka Mountain Range and provide interesting information related to the past of this region. Moreover, they reveal contemporary unknown facts related to the natural environment and settlement processes in the Middle Ages. A visual summary of the article is a map showing the Brzanka Mountain Range with its river network and associated hydronyms.
Trace metal composition of snowpack, snow-melt filter residues and top-soils were determined along transects through industrial towns in the Usa River Basin: Inta, Usinsk and Vorkuta. Elevated concentrations of deposition elements and pH in snow and soils associated with alkaline coal ash within 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were found. Atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of Vorkuta and Inta, added significantly to the soil contaminant loading as a result of ash fallout. The element concentrations in soils within 20-30 km of Vorkuta do not reflect current deposition rates, but instead, reflect an historical pollution legacy, when coal mining activity peaked in the 1960s. There is little evidence of anthropogenic metal deposition around the gas and oil town of Usinsk.
Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Chodelka river was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2016. In the analyzed water bodies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (4 species) and Esocidae, Cobitidae, Peri-cidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish one protected species (M. fossilis) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: R. rutilus (all five reservoir) and C. auratus. The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, R. rutilus and C. auratus.
Rivers are considered as one of the main resources of water supply for various applications such as agricultural, drinking and industrial purposes. Also, these resources are used as a place for discharge of sewages, industrial wastewater and agricultural drainage. Regarding the fact that each river has a certain capacity for acceptance of pollutants, nowadays qualitative and environmental investigations of these resources are proposed. In this study, qualitative investigation of the Talar river was done according to Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI), National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and Wilcox indicators during 2011–2012 years at upstream, midstream and downstream of the river in two periods of wet and dry seasons. According to the results of OWQI, all of the values at 3 stations and both periods are placed at very bad quality category and the water is not acceptable for drinking purposes. According to NSFWQI, the best condition was related to the upstream station at wet season period (58, medium quality) and the worst condition was related to the downstream in wet season period (46, very bad quality). Also the results of Wilcox showed that in both periods of wet season and dry season, the water quality is getting better from upstream station to the downstream station, and according to the index classification, the downstream water quality has shown good quality and it is suitable for agriculture.
The article deals with the process of restoring life into the Elblag’s waterfront – located in the heart of the city, which is the Old Town with still forgotten Granary Island, both damaged by the second world war. The conclusions are inspired by publications about Elblag deriving from various periods, as well by international or students’ workshops. The author describes various considerations how to bring Granary Island into cultivation simultaneously with rebuilding Elblag’s Old Town, that derive from the conservation concept based on a new method named retroversion, how to create new panorama of the waterfront and what is the best way to integrate it with The Old Town, using Elblag River.
The Timok River (202 km long, 4547 km2 basin area) is located in East Serbia. It is a right tributary of the Danube River and one of the most polluted watercourses in Serbia. On the basis of the data provided by the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia, the paper presents an analysis of water quality and pollution using the combined physico-chemical WPI index (Water Pollution Index) calculated for two periods - 1993-96 and 2006-2009 at four hydrological stations: Zaječar-Gamzigrad (Crni Timok River), Zaječar (Beli Timok River), Rgotina (Borska Reka River) and Čokonjar (Timok River). The following parameters were taken into consideration: dissolved O2, O2 saturation, pH, suspended sediments, Five Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (CODMn), nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ammonium, metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, Cd), sulphates and coliform germs. The average WPI values were calculated for the observed periods based on the comparison of the annual average values of the listed parameters and defined standard values for the I water quality class (according to the Regulation on the Hygienic Acceptability of Potable Water of the Republic of Serbia). The highest pollution degree was recorded in the Borska Reka River, where heavy metal levels (especially manganese and iron) were significantly increased. These metals are indicators of inorganic pollution (primarily caused by copper mining). Also, increased values of the organic pollution indicators (ammonium, coliform germs, Five-Day Biological Oxygen Demand - BOD5) in the Borska Reka and the Timok rivers are the result of uncontrolled domestic wastewater discharge.
A total of 212 soil profiles were described and assessed for physical and chemical properties during July 2006 as part of an Ecological Land Classification study along the Churchill River in central Labrador. Two major soil types were found in the study area along the Churchill River: Podzols and Organic soils. Podzolic soils covered approximately 60% and Organic soils occurred in 24% of the study area. Approximately 15% of the study area was classified as rock and other unconsolidated material. Summary results and a sub−set of the following soil units (from 10 soil profiles) are presented here and were distinguished according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (CSSC) (Soil Classification Working Group 1998): Orthic Humo−Ferric Podzol, Placic Ferro−Humic Podzol, Gleyed Humo−Ferric Podzol, Sombric Humo−Ferric Podzol, Gleyed Regosol and Orthic Luvic Gleysol. The basic properties of the soil units identified above included: (i) morpho− logical descriptions of soil profiles with differentiated horizons; (ii) field−texture tests were used to determine classes and physical properties of sands, silts, loams and occurrence of mottles; and (iii) a range of soil chemical composition of different horizons ( e.g. , pH, total organic carbon [TOC] and select metal concentrations) which indicated no anthropogenic contamination above background concentrations in the area.
The paper discusses the water resources of the Krężniczanka River catchment. The catchment with an area of 224.9 km2 is located south-west of Lublin. The characteristics of the groundwaters and runoff were determined based on hydrological and hydrogeological materials of the Department of Hydrology of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University (UMCS). Mean runoff in the period from 2010 to 2016 amounted to 125.7 mm, precipitation 629.4 mm, and evapotranspi-ration 503.7 mm. A strong relationship was determined between the rhythm of runoff and ground-water level fluctuations. The contribution of groundwater supply in total runoff equalled 81.5%.
Laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to study mobility of chromium and lead in floodplain sediments. The main goal of the research was to verify a hypothesis whether changes of chromium and lead concentration could be used to estimate the relative age of floodplain deposits. The basis for undertaking such research was the presence of weaving industry centers in the Obra River valley between the 16th and the 19th century and using Cr and Pb compounds in paint recipes. The Cr and Pb contents were also analyzed in three vertical profiles unaffected by the field experiments. The age of organic sediments in each of the profiles was determined using the radiocarbon analysis. The results of the laboratory experiments have shown that the highest contents of the elements were noted in the surface layer of the sediments placed in the column. However, the contents decreased during the last phase of the experiments and both vertical and horizontal migration of both elements was observed. A more intensive mobility was observed in the field test. Its cause could be the changes of the groundwater level, floodplain inundation and pH conditions in alluvial deposits. Such processes may have influenced migration of the compounds originating from the weaving industry production; Cr and Pb contents detected in the profiles unaffected by the field experiment were too small to be used for relative dating of alluvial deposits. Moreover, the alluvial deposits with increased contents of the studied elements may be older than the period of the weaving industry development. Cr and Pb mobility was especially intensive in the profiles situated within the near bed zone of the floodplain due to regular inundation, and the activity of erosion and accumulation processes entraining the studied elements back to transport in the river bed.
The object of the investigation was metal contamination of bottom sediments of the Skroda and Chwaliszówka rivers, which are the right contributaries of the Lusatian Neisse river, draining the territory of the so called “anthropogenic lake district”. The district came into existence as a result of mining activities in the border of Silesia and Lusatia, which date from the half of 19th century to 1974. The district includes about 100 reservoirs, of the total area of over 150 ha, which are from about 30 to 100 years old. The rocks accompanying the Miocene coal-bearing formations were deposited on waste dumps. The dumps form embankments of the aquifers arising as a result of post-exploitation mining subsidence. The streams dewatering waste dumps inflow directly or indirectly to the Chwaliszówka and Skroda rivers. The pyrite is the mineral present in mine waste material. The pyrite weathering products inflow into surface waters and affect adversely the water quality. In the last stage of migration the pollutants are accumulated in the bottom sediments of rivers and lakes. The samples of bottom sediments of the two rivers were analysed by means of a five-step sequential extraction procedure performed for the partitioning of selected trace metals (Fe, Mn, As, Cr and Al). It was determined that the bottom sediments of the two analysed rivers contain significant concentrations of aluminium and iron. The concentrations of other metals (Mn, Cr and As) are in the range of geochemical background of water sediments in Poland. Concentrations of arsenium, chromium and manganese, which are bound to easy-available fractions (I – exchangeable and II – bound to carbonates) are not significant, so it could be assumed that they are not expected to be released and they do not threaten the river ecological system. There is, however, the possibility of the aluminium and iron re-mobilisation, taking into account the high concentrations of easy-available fractions of these metals in the sediment. Fe and Al are potential source of water contamination, and re-mobilisation of these metals will produce the aggravation of quality parameters of river waters.
Aeromonas hydrophila is a valuable indicator of the quality of water polluted by sewage and pathogens that pose a risk for humans and cold-blooded animals, including fi sh. The main aim of this research was to evaluate anthropogenic pollution of river water based on genetic diversity of 82 A. hydrophila strains by means of RAPD, semi-random AP-PCR (ISJ) and the rep-BOX conservative repeats test. Genetic diversity of A. hydrophila was HT = 0.28 (SD = 0.02) for all DNA markers (RAPD, semi random and rep-BOX). None of the analyzed electrophoretic patterns was identical, implying that there were many sources of strain transmission. The presence of genes for aerolysin (aerA), hemolysin (ahh1) and the cytotoxic enzyme complex (AHCYTOGEN) was verifi ed for all tested strains, and drug resistance patterns for tetracycline, enrofl oxacin and erythromycin were determined. The most diverse A. hydrophila strains isolated from river water were susceptible to enrofl oxacine (HS = 0.27), whereas less diverse strains were susceptible to erythromycin (HS = 0.24). The presence of the multidrug resistance marker (ISJ4-25; 1100 bp locus) in the examined strains (resistant to three analyzed drugs) indicates that intensive fi sh cultivation affects the microbiological quality of river water.
The data set of the Warta discharges in Poznań (Poland) is one of the largest in the world as the daily observations of river stages have been conducted without interruptions since January, 1st, 1822. The Poznań measurement profile is situated in the 243.6 km and closes the catchment area of approximately 25 thousand square kilometers. The data used as the input in the paper were daily values of the Warta discharges in Poznań in the years 1822-2012. The climate in Poznań, a city situated in the centre of the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) region, is relatively stable (Miler et al. 2005). Also the Warta River runoff shows considerable stability, especially in terms of mean annual values. Short-term trends are random in character. It was found that the Jeziorsko reservoir (total storage volume of 203 000 000 m3, officially put to use on September, 9th, 1987) significantly reduced daily variability of the flows and reduced peak discharge of the flood wave in the summer of 1997 on the Warta River at Poznań. The calculated periodogram for mean annual discharges of the Warta River in Poznań shows that there are main periodicities of ca. 10 year lengths. The research of the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (WIOŚ) in Poznań shows a gradual improvement of water quality in the Warta River in Poznań.