Search results

Filters

  • Journals
  • Date

Search results

Number of results: 2
items per page: 25 50 75
Sort by:

Abstract

The paper presents the results of experiments on the influence of the organic matter’s characteristics on the formation potential of water chlorination by-products – representatives of the following groups: trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate and chloropicrin. The products of water fractionation (the hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids, hydrophobic and hydrophilic bases, and hydrophobic and hydrophilic neutral fractions) were chlorinated with sodium hypochlorite. Its dose was adjusted to obtain a residual free chlorine concentration between 3 and 5 mg/dm3 after 24 h. After this time, the water chlorination by-products were analyzed with gas chromatography. The results’ analysis has defined the fractions, which have the highest potential to form particular groups of volatile organic water chlorination by-products.
Go to article

Abstract

Abstract: Introduction and development of membrane techniques in the production of drinking water and purifi cation of wastewaters, in the last 40 years, was important stage in the field of water treatment effectiveness. Desalination of sea and brackish water by RO is an established way for drinking water production. Signifi cant improvements in design of RO, the application of alternative energy sources, modern pretreatment and new materials have caused the success of the process. NF is the method of water softening, because NF membranes can retain di- and multivalent ions, but to a limited extend monovalent. Drinking water containing viruses, bacteria and protozoa, as well as other microorganisms can be disinfected by means of UF. Viruses are retained by UF membranes, whereas bacteria and protozoa using both UF and MF membranes. For the removal of NOM it is possible to use direct NF or integrated systems combining UF or MF with coagulation, adsorption and oxidation. The use of NF, RO and ED, in the treatment of water containing micropollutants for drinking and industrial purposes, can provide more or less selective removal of the pollutants. The very important are disinfection byproducts, residue of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds. For endocrine disrupting compounds, special attention is paid onto polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and surface-active substances, chlorinated pesticides, phthalates, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, hormones, synthetic pharmaceuticals and other substances disposed to the environment. The application of MF and UF in the removal of inorganic and organic micropollutants is possible in integrated systems with: coagulation, adsorption, complexion with polymers or surfactants and biological reactions.
Go to article

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more