Introduction of polymers into the cement composites improves same of the properties of concretes and mortars. Therefore, the polymer-cement composites are successfully used in construction. The model of microstructure formation in cement composites modified with thermoplastic polymer (pre-mix modifiers) has already been developed and successfully implemented. However, the formation of microstructure in the case of epoxy-cement composites (containing post-mix modifier) demonstrates same peculiarities which should be taken into account when modelling the process. The microstructure of epoxy-cement composites and its formation is discussed in the paper. The model is offered, formulated on the basis of the microscopic observations and results of testing.
The paper presents results of a study concerning an AlSi7Mg alloy and the effect of subjecting the liquid metal to four different processes: conventional refining with hexachloroethane; the same refining followed by modification with titanium, boron, and sodium; refining by purging with argon carried out in parallel with modification with titanium and boron salts and strontium; and parallel refining with argon and modification with titanium, boron, and sodium salts. The effect of these four processes on compactness of the material, parameters of microstructure, and fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg alloy after heat treatment. It has been found that the highest compactness (the lowest porosity ratio value) and the most favorable values of the examined parameters of microstructure were demonstrated by the alloy obtained with the use of the process including parallel purging with argon and modification with salts of titanium, boron, and sodium. It has been found that in the fatigue cracking process observed in all the four variants of the liquid metal treatment, the crucial role in initiation of fatigue cracks was played by porosity. Application of the process consisting in refining by purging with argon parallel to modification with Ti, B, and Na salts allowed to refine the microstructure and reduce significantly porosity of the alloy extending thus the time of initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. The ultimate effect consisted in a distinct increase of the fatigue limit value.
Cells of a multicellular organism are genetically identical but differ in structure and function. This heterogeneity is created by several epigenetic mechanisms during the development of the organism. The epigenetic changes- including DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, chromatin remodeling and RNA interference have all been shown to control chromatin structure and regulate a plethora of cellular and organismal processes. There is a strong evidence that epigenetics play a crucial role in the development of diseases such as cancer, schizophrenia or metabolic disorders. The epigenetic regulation underlie memory formation or adaptation to external stimuli. The extent to which environmental effects can provoke epigenetic responses represents an exciting area of future research. Here we review the current knowledge about the epigenetic mechanisms and their relation to the human health and disease.
Liquid AI -Si alloys are usually given special treatments before they are cast to obtain finer or modified matrix and eutectic structures, leading to improved proper ties. For many years, sodium additions to hypoeutectic and eutectic AI -Si melts have been recognized as the most effective method of modifying the eutectic morphology, although most of the group IA or IIA elements have significant effects on the eutectic s tructure. Unfortunately, many of these approaches also have associated several founding difficulties, such as fading, forming dross in presence of certain alloying elements, reduced fluidity, etc. ln recent years, antimony additions to AI -Si castings have attracted considerable attention as an alternative method of refining the eutectic structure. Such additions eliminate many of the difficulties listed above and provide permanent (i.e. non -fading) refining ability. In this paper, the authors summarize work on antimony treatment of Al -Si based alloys.
The purpose of the work was initial modification of the construction of a commercially produced heat exchanger – recuperator with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) methods, based on designs and process parameters which were provided. Uniformity of gas distribution in the space between the tubes of the apparatus as well as the pressure drop in it were taken as modification criteria. Uniformity of the gas velocity field between the tubes of the heat exchanger should cause equalization of the local individual heat transfer coefficient values and temperature value. Changes of the apparatus construction which do not worsen work conditions of the equipment, but cause savings of constructional materials (elimination or shortening some parts of the apparatus) were taken into consideration.
A method of manufacturing hydrogel coatings designed to increase the hydrophilicity of polyurethanes (PU) is presented. Coatings were obtained from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) by free radical polymerisation. The authors proposed a mechanism of a two-step grafting - crosslinking process and investigated the influence of reagent concentration on the coating’s physical properties - hydrogel ratio (HG) and equilibrium swelling ratio (ESR). A surface analysis of freeze-dried coatings using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a highly porous structure. The presented technology can be used to produce biocompatible surfaces with limited protein and cell adhesive properties and can be applied in fabrication of number of biomedical devices, e.g. catheters, vascular grafts and heart prosthesis.
Titania nanotube (TNT) arrays fabricated by anodizing of titanium foil in organic (ethylene glycol) and inorganic (phosphoric acid) electrolytes and thermally modified in argon revealed much improved properties to detect hydrogen peroxide. Horseradish peroxidase and acetate thionine co-absorbed by a dip coating on the TNT electrode were used to detect hydrogen peroxide in phosphate buffered saline. The morphology and electrochemical properties of TNT arrays were studied by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Well defined oxidation and reduction peaks for potassium ferricyanide have been observed for TNT formed in ethylene glycol and annealed in argon. TNT arrays formed in organic electrolyte and annealed in argon indicated more favorable adsorption and electrochemical properties what was confirmed by detection of hydrogen peroxide towards analyte in phosphorate buffered saline solution.
The effect of combination grain refinement with AlTi5B1 master (55 ppm) and Sr-modification with AlSr5 master (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ppm) on the microstructure, tensile and hardness properties of AlSi7MgTi cast alloy were systematically investigated. Eutectic silicon was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy after standard (0.5% HF) and deep etching (HCl). Morphology of eutectic Si changes from compact plate-like (as-cast state) to fibbers (after modification). Si-fibbers in samples with 50 and 60 ppm Sr coarsen probably as a result of over-modification. The optimum mechanical properties has the experimental material which was grain refined and modified with 40 ppm of Sr (UTS = 220.6 MPa; ductility = 6.1%, and 82.3 HBW 5/250/15).
This paper presents a study of the effect of the modification and cooling rate on the grain count α(Al) in the Al-5Cu alloy. Research was performed on castings with walls thickness between 3 mm and 25 mm. Cooling curves were recorded to determine the cooling rate and the degree of undercooling at the beginning of solidification. It has been shown that cooling rate increases exponentially as the wall thickness of casting decreases. Moreover it has been demonstrated that the cooling rate of castings changes within a wide range (21ºC/s - 1ºC/s) when the wall thickness changes from 3 up to 25 mm. Metallographic examinations revealed primary grains (primary α(Al) grains). The paper show that the relationship between the grain count and the degree of undercooling (for non-modified and modified alloys) can be represented by the equation N = Nv = np·exp(-b/ΔTα), based on the Weibull's distribution of the size of nucleation sites.
Grain refining and modification are common foundry practice for improving properties of cast Al-Si alloys. In general, these types of treatments provide better fluidity, decreased porosity, higher yield strength and ductility. However, in practice, there are still some discrepancies on the reproducibility of the results from grain refining and effect of the refiner’s additions. Several factors include the fading effect of grain refinement and modifiers, inhomogeneous dendritic structure and non-uniform eutectic modification. In this study, standard ALCAN test was used by considering Taguchi’s experimental design techniques to evaluate grain refinement and modification efficiency. The effects of five casting parameters on the grain size have been investigated for A357 casting alloy. The results showed that the addition of the grain refiner was the most effective factor on the grain size. It was found that holding time, casting temperature, alloy type and modification with Sr were less effective over grain refinement.
Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for production of castings weighing up to 300 kilograms poured into bentonite sand moulds.
The presented work discusses the influence of material of foundry mould on the effect of modification of AlSi11 alloy. For this purpose castings were produced in moulds made of four various materials. Castings of the first type were cast in a metal die, the second ones in the conventional mould of bentonite-bound sand, those of the third type in the sand mould with oil binder, the last ones in a shell mould where phenol-formaldehyde resin was applied as a binder. All the castings were made of AlSi11 alloy modified with strontium. For a purpose of comparison also castings made of the non-modified alloy were produced. The castings were examined with regard to their microstructures. The performed investigations point out that the addition of strontium master alloy results in refining of the alloy structure, particularly of the α-phase, causes some morphological changes in the alloy and the refinement of eutectics. The advantageous influence of modifier on the structure of the examined silumin was observed particularly in the case of alloy cast either in the conventional oil-bound sand mould or in the shell mould. The non-modified alloy cast into a metal die exhibits a structure similar to those of modified alloy solidifying in the other moulds. The improvement in both tensile strength and unit elongation suggests that the modification was carried out correctly. The best mechanical properties were found for the alloy cast in a metal die, both with and without modification treatment.
Abstract An attempt has been made to determine the effect of an addition of colloidal suspensions of the nanoparticles of magnesium oxide on the structure of water glass, which is a binder for moulding and core sands. Nanoparticles of magnesium oxide MgO in propanol and ethanol were introduced in the same mass content (5wt.%) and structural changes were determined by measurement of the FT-IR absorption spectra.
Impact of surface and volume modification and double filtration during pouring the moulds on basic mechanical properties and creep resistance of nickel superalloys IN-713C and MAR-247 in conditions of accelerated creep of castings made of post-production scrap of these alloys is evaluated in this paper. The conditions of initiation and propagation of cracks in the specimens were analysed with consideration of stereological properties of material macro- and microstructure. It has been proven that in the conditions of hightemperature creep at 980°C and at stress σ = 150 MPa, creep resistance of superalloy MAR-247 is more than 10 times higher than the creep resistance of IN-713C alloy. In case of IN-713C alloy, the creep resistance negligibly depends on macrograin sizes. But, the macrograin size considerably affects the time to failure of specimens made of alloy MAR-247. Creep resistance of specimens made of coarse grain material was 20% higher than the resistance of fine grain materials.
The influence of ion implantation on the structure and properties of polymers is a very complex issue. Many physical and chemical processes taking place during ion bombardment must be taken into consideration. The complexity of the process may exert both positive and negative influence on the structure of the material. The goal of this paper is to investigate the influence of H+, He+ and Ar+ ion implantation on the properties of polypropylene membranes used in filtration processes and in consequence on fouling phenomena. It has appeared that the ion bombardment caused the chemical modification of membranes which has led to decrease of hydrophobicity. The increase of protein adsorption on membrane surface has also been observed.
The paper presents the study results of laser modification of Vanadis-6 steel after diffusion boronized. The influence of laser beam fluence on selected properties was investigated. Diffusion boronizing lead to formation the FeB and Fe2B iron borides. After laser modification the layers were consisted of: remelted zone, heat affected zone and substrate. It was found that increase of laser beam fluence have influence on increase in dimensions of laser tracks. In the thicker remelting zone, the primary dendrites and boron eutectics were detected. In the thinner remelting zone the primary carbo-borides and eutectics were observed. In obtained layers the FeB, Fe2B, Fe3B0.7C0.3 and Cr2B phases were detected. Laser remelting process caused obtained the mild microhardness gradient from the surface to the substrate. In the remelted zone was in the range from 1800 HV0.1 to 1000 HV0.1. It was found that the laser beam fluence equal to 12.7 J/mm2 was most favorable. Using this value, microhardness was relatively high and homogeneous.
The main goal of the presented work was to determine the relationship between changes in the shape of the derivative curve and the microstructure of Zn-Al-Cu alloys before and after modification. To describe the phenomena that occur in the material during solidification as a result of the modification in the chemical composition, the thermal-derivative analysis method was applied. This method allows to describe and interpret the kinetics of crystallisation of the tested alloys. To describe the morphology and phase composition, light and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) was also used. The modification of the hypereutectic Zn-Al-Cu alloys with the addition of Ce causes a reduction in the size α' + η eutectics and change in the morphology of the α' phase precipitates from dendritic to “tweed”.
This paper presents the results of studies of high-alloyed white cast iron modified with lanthanum, titanium, and aluminium-strontium. The samples were taken from four melts of high-vanadium cast iron with constant carbon and vanadium content and near-eutectic microstructure into which the tested inoculants were introduced in an amount of 1 wt% respective of the charge weight. The study included a metallographic examinations, mechanical testing, as well as hardness and impact resistance measurements taken on the obtained alloys. Studies have shown that different additives affect both the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-vanadium cast iron.
The modified surface layers of Mg enriched with Al and Si were fabricated by thermochemical treatment. The substrate material in contact with an Al + 20 wt.% Si powder mixture was heated to 445ºC for 40 or 60 min. The microstructure of the layers was examined by OM and SEM. The chemical composition of the layer and the distribution of elements were determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that the thickness of the layer is dependent on the heating time. A much thicker layer (1 mm) was obtained when the heating time was 60 min than when it was 40 min (600 μm). Both layers had a non-homogeneous structure. In the area closest to the Mg substrate, a thin zone of a solid solution of Al in Mg was detected. It was followed by a eutectic with Mg17Al12and a solid solution of Al in Mg. The next zone was a eutectic with agglomerates of Mg2Si phase particles; this three-phase structure was the thickest. Finally, the area closest to the surface was characterized by dendrites of the Mg17Al12phase. The microhardness of the modified layer increased to 121-236 HV as compared with 33-35 HV reported for the Mg substrate.
The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eutectic phase particle shape and improve the mechanical properties of the final cast products and Al-Si alloys cast properties.
In this paper crystallization studies of low-alloyed construction cast steel were presented for different additions of chromium, nickel and molybdenum modified with vanadium and titanium. Studies were conducted using developed TDA stand, which additionally enabled evaluation of cooling rate influence on crystallization process of investigated alloys.
The work presents the effect of strontium and antimony modification on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 226 silumin casts. The performed research demonstrated that strontium causes high refinement of silicon precipitations in the eutectic present in the microstructure of the examined silumin and it significantly affects the morphology of eutectic silicon from the lamellar to the fibrous one. Sr modification also causes an increase of: the tensile strength „Rm” by 12%; the proof stress „Rp0,2” by 5%; the unit elongation „A” by 36% and the hardness HB by 13%. Antimony did not cause a change in the microstructure of the silumin, yet it caused an increase in Rm and HB by 5%, in Rp0,2 by 7% and in A by 4%.
The modification of the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions by rare-earth elements in the new-developed microalloyed steels was discussed in the paper. The investigated steels are assigned to production of forged elements by thermomechanical treatment. The steels were melted in a vaccum induction furnace and modification of non-metallic inclusions was carried out by the michmetal in the amount of 2.0 g per 1 kg of steel. It was found that using material charge of high purity and a realization of metallurgical process in vacuous conditions result in a low concentration of sulfur (0.004%), phosphorus (from 0.006 to 0.008%) and oxygen (6 ppm). The high metallurgical purity is confirmed by a small fraction of non-metallic inclusions averaging 0.075%. A large majority of non-metallic inclusions are fine, globular oxide-sulfide or sulfide particles with a mean size 17 µm2 . The chemical composition and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was modified by Ce, La and Nd, what results a small deformability of nonmetallic inclusions during hot-working.
This paper presents influence of rare earth metals (REM) on the properties of GP240GH cast carbon steel. The research has been performed on successive industrial melts. Each time ca 2000 kg of liquid metal was modified. The rare earth metals were put into the ladle during tapping of heat melt from the furnace. Because of this the amount of sulphur in the cast steel was decreased and the non-metallic inclusion morphology was significantly changed. It was found that non metallic inclusions the cracking mechanism of Charpy specimens and the impact strength were all changed. The following properties were tested: mechanical properties (σy, σUTS), plastic properties (necking, elongation) and impact strength (SCI). In the three-point bend test the KJC stress intensity factor was evaluated.
The paper present the examination results concerning mechanical properties of castings made of AlSi7MG alloy in correlation both with the most significant squeeze casting parameters and with the modification treatment. Experiments were planned and held according to the 2 3 factorial design. The regression equations describing the influence of the squeeze pressure, the mould temperature, and the quantity of strontium modifier on the strength and elongation of the examined alloy were obtained. It was found that the main factor controlling the strength increase is the squeeze pressure, while the plasticity (A5 ) of the alloy is affected most advantageously by modification. The application of modification treatment in squeeze casting technology enables for production of the slab-type castings made of AlSi7Mg alloy exhibiting strength at the level of 230 MPa and elongation exceeding 14%.