Aesthetic Costs of Spatial Chaos. The most characteristic process of settlement’s development in Poland after 1989, is chaotic dispersion of the buildings, usually around cities, but also along the routes, tourist sites and agricultural areas. The result of this pressure is the fragmentation and the increasing isolation of the landscape ecological systems. These processes have also consequences in the degradation of aesthetic values of the landscape. This report shows the consequences of these processes and condemns the most important tasks that should be taken to repair the quality of the landscape. It is estimated that over 60% of the Polish population lives in the conflict countryside, undergoing pressure of spatial disorder, with reduced or degraded of compositional and aesthetic values. The disintegration of the landscape style and the place identity has also appeared in this areas. In the cities grows the visual aggression of advertising billboards. These phenomena are increasingly negatively assessed by the society. Improvement of spatial order and landscape aesthetics requires fundamental changes in the system of spatial planning, transfer of modern knowledge about the landscape systems to local governments and spatial planning staff, as well as a long-term, consistent work of the society.It is necessary to establish a new way of thinking and learning about the landscape systems. The development and dissemination of methods and techniques of GIS, opens up a new possibilities for diagnosing the physiognomy of the landscape. A methods of assessing the physiognomic structure of landscape as well as methods of design the composition of landscape interiors and scenic panoramas are developed. Since 2015, the landscape audit procedure is implemented. The National Landscape Policy, as well as a common landscape education should be developed, conducted in parallel to the already well-developed environmental policy and education.
Landscape is an object of perception, while its image is the sum of ideas on this object. Both terms used in the title of the paper have fairly strong impact on each other. In order to manage the city’s image well, it is necessary to take care of the landscape in all its areas especially in the “forgotten” and degraded ones. The aim of the author was to identify elements of landscape exposure along railway lines – areas with low aesthetic value in many cities around the world. The research area includes railway lines, in Cracow and Wrocław. The method adopted for the implementation of the study is the analysis of mental maps made in 2018 during field workshops. The paper is ended by conclusions on the landscape impact on the image of the city.
The present article provides information on the method of distinguishing between spatial natural units within a valley microregion in the Arctic zone. Geocomplexes fall into 20 types and are grouped under four categories of high order units, i.e. glacial, fluvial, slope and polygenetic geocomplexes. The lithomorphogenetic criterion is useful in differentiating other natural characteristics.
The paper presents the results of partially categorized interviews conducted among the inhabitants of the nine lakeside villages located in the Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie lakeland. The aim of the study was to show how the inhabitants of rural areas featuring high natural values perceive the environment of their own village and what are their landscape preferences. The article presents the landscape elements which, according to the respondents, are the most and the least attractive in terms of aesthetics values as well as are considered to be characteristic or distinctive for a given village. Besides, a set of characteristics features and factors determining the landscape values of the analysed areas were presented. The results showed that the inhabitants attach little importance to the aesthetics values of their dwelling-place. It was also shown that lakes are considered, by the majority of the respondents, as landscape elements of the minor significance. The most important feature deciding on the villages aesthetic qualities occurred to be the law and order referring to the spatial, technical and visual aspects of buildings and sites resulted from the fact that an owner is taking care of a given place. Recently renovated or new sites and objects obtained the highest rate.
Changes in the land use structure, which are observed in recent years, generally indicate their negative impact on ecological quality considered in the landscape scale. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether such a trend also applies to protected areas, such as land-scape parks (LP). As research areas four parks located within the Roztocze and Solska Forest (Poland) were selected. Three factors were analyzed as an surrogate indicators of the ecological quality: the degree of anthropogenic transformation of land cover forms, landscape diversity and the degree of landscape fragmentation. The study included data for the years 2004 and 2012 and was based on the GIS and orthophotomaps analysis. The results showed a lack of general trends for the whole analyzed region. The impact of changes in the land use structure on the ecological values can be defined as positive for Krasnobród LP and South Roztocze LP. In the case of Szczebrzeszyn LP and Solska Forest LP the impact is difficult to determine due to the different results obtained on the basis of selected indicators. Therefore, in order to totally illustrate the analyzed dependence the landscape structure in other periods of time should be analyzed, as well as the correlations between the defined changes and a variety of natural and cultural considerations.
The paper presents an original method for assessing the landscape physiognomy of the rural public spaces. It takes into account both the purely aesthetic qualities as well as those that affect the functionality, attractiveness and significance of a given space. The following features are evaluated: coziness, availability, the nature of the edges, presence of greenery, presence of water ecosystems, presence of landscape dominants and landmarks, opening and view connec-tions, presence of negative elements, local identity and tradition, bendiness, and the nature of light. The method has been applied to evaluate the selected rural public spaces of the Polesie region realized in the years 2008–2015. The study revealed that 40% of the analyzed places were rated positively, 33% neutrally and 27% negatively. The article examines the types of spaces which obtained the highest and the lowest raring position, as well as features that affect this as-sessment. Besides, the analysis of main advantages and disadvantages of newly created public spaces show direction of their improvement.
City is a formal expression of social relations. It is a kind of ethos and dreams connected with history and identity of individuals. It is a structure with thousands of meanings. The opportunities it creates can lead to an outstanding civilization. At the same time it reveals all negative aspects of living. City is a collection of separate individuals combined with common perception of spatial affi liation and identity development. It is worth writing about city because despite its well-defi ned value it is an elusive being. In spite of being a kind of collective needs it is still on the move, transforms all the time reflecting human emotions. Existence of city as a phenomena itself is a symbol of realization of people’s most basic needs and the history of its development shows growing complication and diversification of expectations related to it. City along with is diversity reflects human beings of a particular time. It is a spotlight in which both successes and failures of communities and individuals in each epoch can be seen. Thanks to its interdisciplinary character it can be perceived as multidimensional place. It is a multifaceted organism with high hopes and unlimited opportunities. Differences in perception which are due to a number of its users results in a wide range of problems and expectations. Expectations of local communities and individuals of a whole city vary. As a result, what we call a city landscape must be very vague and differs depending on a particular field which is taken into consideration. The number of opportunities and city-related issues is infi nite. In the dissertation below, however, three factors are the crucial ones: structure, meaning and city phenomena as a landscape. Thanks to the interpretation of model and genius loci as well as defining social expectations we have managed to conceive the phenomena of spatial identity. We have decided on this method referring directly to the concept of landscape. City is in here widely defined between urban aspects of landscape and city landscape. We have tried to understand what city is in terms of landscape, where it comes from and where it goes to. It is a trial of translation the Gaugin’s method: where are we from? Who are we? Where are we going to? into the language of present perception of some particular aspects of town planning. We live at times of the unprecedented technological change which is followed by a social change. It all must have an impact on how city is perceived, what it looks like, how it is to live there and what it is going to be like – what the future has in store. We have tried to bring the reader’s attention to the problems and issues which had appeared before the advent of reality we live in. We have focused on what may have led to a kind of city crisis at the edge of 19th and 20th centuries and some radical solutions trying to overcome the arisen problems and its consequences today. Both its pompous character and sentimentalism of town planning and architecture in the early 20th century have made us be bored with form which is felt in many parts of the world even today. Another aspect of our work covers understanding city in social terms as well as contemporary and future solutions. We are of the opinion it is worth asking questions referring to the future and at the same time regarding its current state and recent past. It is commendable to look for particular tools and solutions. Three dimensions which are covered by the book are figurative. Structure – which is everything we perceive as a kind of a template, identifi cation – we assign to city. It is responsible for recognition, adaptation to some forms by which we defi ne space. Meaning is a step forward. While the structure’s equivalent is „I can see”, the meaning equals to „I know”. Meaning does not exist as a city without structure just like structure does not exist without meaning. Things don’t just exist, they have some characteristics and purpose and it refers to trees, buildings and all other urban elements constituting city in all steady and temporary aspects and time dimensions. Meaning is also interpretation and emotion regarding both community and individual. It is the answer to the question „why?” Some particular places and spaces are linked to some particular values which identify them. This system of values is a must to be able to interpret what space we are dealing with and its diagnosis. Meaning is very much about social aspect too. It has to do with perception and remembering city and it is connected with knowledge, tradition and culture of places. Another aspect linked to relations in city landscape combines other aspects and constitutes something to which city refers to. Phenomena is contribution and verifi cation. The way city works is fundamental to all city residents and users. A key to such understanding a city is the term of genius loci. By singling out objects, order, time, character and light we are able to widely identify essence of space and particular places. The graphic model by Panofsky acts here as a verifying tool. City landscape as a form is of great importance here. The sense of beauty is as essential as the way the city works. Social perception of city is not only shaped by the way it is used, but also by the fact what city is like and how it is perceived. Spatial order is an incredibly important factor understood here as everything what accommodates vaguely defi ned beauty and what is connected with its particular structure, history and identity. All these factors contribute to the value of city landscape. When it comes to city landscape studies social aspect is emphasized by the impact of humanities, especially sociology, which perfectly shows expectations related to space. Cities are built and seen in the context of particular tradition, culture and history. Their skyline and ways of functioning are embedded in mentalities of societies which they represent. Despite their diversity from the global point of view they are susceptible to similar trends resulting in crisis or prosperity periods. They are economic archetypes of success.
One of the most interesting and relatively little-known water acosystems of ”Lasy Janowskie” Natural Landscape Park is its old ponds which have been in most cases excluded from intensive fisheries for many decades. Four of them were studied in 1996, 2005 and 2013, regarding their planktonic rotifer assemblages. The total of 60 rotifer taxa were observed in the plankton. The number of their species in individual reservoirs ranged from 7 to 21, while their density amounted to 33–775 ind. dm-3. As many as 21 of the species observed in individual water bodies and study periods belonged to dominants. While watching the changes occurring in the plankton during the period of 17 years , we were trying to determine which of those tiny reservoirs were inhabited by more sustainable rorifer assemblages and which ecological qualities were more closely related to such sustainability: species richness, its diversity, density, bio-mass, composition or domination structure. The results of the studies revealed slight variability of ecological properties in planktonic rotifer assemblages in the ponds composing large reservoir groups, and significantly higher variability of those qualities in ”single” ponds, not belonging to large complexes.
The paper investigates the geographical denominations of Western lranian dialects, largely functioning also in the place-names, hydronyms, and oronyms of the area. The relevant lexical material, when taken together and approached as a system, opens larger possibilities for adequate analysis: the paradigm and internal ties of the constituent units become more visible and more clear revealing many otherwise unseen tendencies and peculiarities, particularly regarding the origin of given terms or groups of lexemes within the system. Moreover, as a mirror, it can detect various areal characteristics - first of all lexical and phonetic - of a language or language group in a particular territory. ln other words, it can reveal not only the features of linguistic development in diachrony, i.e. in time, but also in diatopy, i.e. in space.
The Influence of Spatial Disorder on Landscape Ecological Systems. Preparation of this report included the following steps: (1) Identification of the main directions of changes taking place in the landscape ecological systems (LES) of Poland in the last few decades; (2) Development of general models of LES response to these changes, with particular emphasis on the ecological effects of spatial disorder; (3) Indication of the main structural elements of the national LES, particularly those at the risk of chaotic or collisional land development; (4) Presentation of ecological and social consequences of changes taking place in LES as well as indication of possible directions of repair, together with an assessment of the scale of costs. Many changes occurring in the development of the country have a negative impact on the spatial order, resources and conditions of the functioning of ecological systems and the aesthetic values of the landscape. Generally these changes cause: (a) decrease in the natural potential of some supply ecosystem services; (b) decline in the natural potential of regulating ecosystem services; (c) decrease in the natural potential of habitat services; (d) decrease in the potential of some cultural services; (e) a decrease in the investment attractiveness of the landscape. Achieving high parameters of the living space should in particular be focused on the protection and harmonious shaping of: (I) a rich natural system, ensuring ecological balance and good rest conditions on the national and regional scale; (II) spatial order, ensuring efficient functioning of the economic system, protection of cultural heritage and high environmental quality standards; (III) high values of landscape physiognomy, including regional identity. The most urgent tasks necessary to improve spatial order in Poland, in particular the condition of landscape ecological systems and the advantages of landscape physiognomy, should be considered: (A) development and successive implementation of the National Landscape Policy, aimed at repairing and protecting landscape quality, including harmonious planning and effective management of its resources and assets; (B) introducing into the legal system provisions allowing for effective protection of spatial order as well as ecological and aesthetic values of the landscape; including the protection of particularly attractive open areas against changes in the character of its natural topography and natural land cover, as well as the repair and
The concept of civil society does not cease to attract the attention of the media and that of politicians. It is being discussed over and over and viewed from every angle: political, national, social. We can ask ourselves the important question the, what is its influence on architecture and the aesthetics of our immediate surroundings? How can converting the homo sapiens into a citizens change our landscape? If it can, what is so special about architectural and urban design in a civil society which makes it different from those that we have now? Can we describe the aesthetics of a civil society? And finally, what are the relations between being a citizen and architecture, aesthetics and the landscape?
Marine rock-accumulative terraces at 2-230 m a.s.l. in the southern Sörkapp Land are typical for glacioisostaticly uplifted areas. The Holocene terraces reach up to 19 m a.s.l. An outstanding coastal ridge at 9-10 m a.s.l. was radiocarbon-dated at 6580±160 years B.P. No marine transgression during the Holocene on higher and older terraces was noted, what is also confirmed by well preserved raised storm ridges. Any of glacial advances during the Holocene were more extensive than the one of the Little Ice Age. However the Pleistocene glaciations were more extensive. Among glacial landforms in the area there are: ice-cored frontal and lateral moraines up to 70 m high, plains of ground, ablation and fluted moraines, complexes of glaciofluvial fans. The glaciers retreated 0.3-2 km since 1936 i.e. ca 10 m a year on the average. There are large consequent structural landslides on eastern slopes of Keilhaufjellet.
Paper discusses an issue of old-time gentry estates landscape formation based on po-lish agricultural textbooks. Theoretical proposals as well as real-life structures of gentry estates on polish lands in pre-parti-tion and post-partition times are analyzed. Article presents both rules of shaping mo-dest gardens of decorative and utilitarian functions alike in the vicinity of mansions, and other components of estate’s land-scape. Partial concurrence between theore-tical postulates and real land use is proven.
The paper gives coverage to peculiarities of water elements application in landscape compositions created in 19th century by gardener of Dionizy Mikler (Denis McClair) at Volhynia. Being an ambassador of English landscape garden style in this region D. Mikler seamlessly integrated picturesque natural and artificial water components in the garden structure. There are considered the role and ways of interaction of water elements with the landscape compositions by giving examples of Polish landowner´s residences in Gorodok, Mizoch, Mlyniv and Shpaniv.
Landscape changes of the Gåsbreen glacier and its vicinity since 1899 are described. Maps at 1:50 000 scale of changes of the glacier's elevation and extent for the periods 1938-1961, 1961-1990, 1990-2010, and 1938-2010 are analyzed in comparison with results of the authors' field work in the summer seasons 1983, 1984, 2000, 2005 and 2008. During all the 20th century, the progressive recession of the glacier revealed in a dramatic decrease in the thickness of its lower part, with a small reduction of its area and length. However, further shrinkage produced significant shortening and reduction in area which resulted in final decline of the Goësvatnet glacial dammed lake in 2002. Hence, the lowest (and very thick, up to 150-160 m) part of the former glacier tongue and dammed lake were transformed into a new terraced river valley south of the glacier and a typical marginal zone with glacial landforms north of the glacier. Since 1961, the equilibrium line altitude of the Gåsbreen glacier has risen from ca 350 to ca 500 m a.s.l. and now is located below the very steep rocky walls of the Mehesten mountain ridge, 1378 m a.s.l. Hence, the glacier is being fed by snow avalanches from these rocky walls and much more snow melts during the warmer summer seasons, stimulating a quicker recession of the lowest part of the glacier. This recession may be stopped only by significant climate cooling or increase in snow.
The aim of presented work was to evaluate the current tourist-leisure management and on this basis to designate the concept of management the Natura 2000 „Puszcza Notecka” area at Drawsko commune area. The natural-landscape valorisation revealed a very high level of environmental values. However, this potential is currently not fully utilized. For enrichment of current tourist infrastructure and full using potential of analyzed area the followed activities were here proposed: designation of new tourist routes, location a resort and small architecture objects.
Provence has been playing an important role in Russian literature for two hundred years. Numerous Russian artists have visited this French region or settled there for a longer time; enchanted by the beauty of south European nature and mild climate, they depicted it in their poems, stories or travel journals. The list includes, e.g. Semen Nadson, Alexandr Kuprin, Ivan Bunin, Sasha Chyorny, Vladimir Nabokov. Galina Kuznetsova (1900–1976), representative of the first wave of Russian emigration, spent several years in Provence. The poet lived in Grasse on and off from 1927 to 1942. Her stay on the south of France greatly influenced the journal she then wrote (Грасский дневник, 1967), and her only poetry collection published in her lifetime, entitled The Olive Garden (Оливковый сад, 1937). This article covers the Provence threads present in both texts. Kuznetsova depicts in these works the beauty of exotic nature, combining descriptions of landscape with her own emotional states, using solutions characteristic of impressionism.
The Lublin region has a rich history of coexistence and interpenetration of different traditions, cultures and religions, witnessed by its cities and towns. Small towns of the Lublin region are now facing a variety of spatial problems which are related to, among others, the organization and revitalization of public spaces, progressive scattering of housing development or changes in the organisation of traffic. The aim of this article is to present problems connected with landscape design and the revitalization of small towns of the Lublin region as exemplified by Frampol.
The goal of the studies undertaken in Polish national parks was to determine noise threats, examine the resources, assess the quality of soundscapes and identify the possibilities of their protection. The questionnaire method used in the studies made it possible to identify the awareness of noise threats and the value of soundscapes according to the park service staff. In addition, the semantic differential and description methods were used to learn how students assessed the soundscape quality of Polish national parks. Finally, avenues of further research on soundscape in environmentally valuable areas were indicated. The research findings indicate that each national park in Poland is characterised by diverse and unique soundscapes and is subject to the pressure of road traffic and tourism resulting in noise hazards. The conservation of the acoustic values of parks is necessary and possible.
Formation of modern landscapes of Zaporizhzhya region occurred in the Holocene period. During the Holocene wet phase changing climate fairly arid, warm - rather cold, but the average climatic indicators were close to modern. These conditions contributed to the formation of steppe zonal type of landscape. However, due to prolonged exposure to diverse steppe landscapes economic impacts associated with mismanagement of their natural potential and increasing human pressure on the natural environment has been transformed natural landscapes and change their properties. The result of this action was that the area landscapes drastically reduced. Zaporizhzhya region was the most economically mastered in all regions of Ukraine. To further study the issues to optimize environmental management of the region, the article reproduced a modern structure of landscapes area. The area characterized Zaporizhzhya region lowland class and type steppe landscapes. Three subtypes of landscapes: the north, middle and dry steppe. Each subtype is divided into land. Within North steppe subtype isolated Dniester-Dnieper and the Left-Bank Dnepr-Azov province. Medium steppe subtype is represented by the Black Sea margin, and dry steppe - Black sea-Azov. The most popular items on the optimization of environmental management are landscaped areas and areas of morphological units within them. That level reflects the nature of the landscape area inside the area landscape differentiation. Within the Zaporizhzhya region allocated 7 landscaped areas: highland Azov, highland-Dnieper south slope, Kinsko-Yalinska low-lying, low-lying Azov, the Dnieper-Molochansk low-lying, Western Azov-slope highland and lowland Prisivasko-Priazov.
The main object of this article is to present the history of the establishing legal regulations in Poland concerning additional place names and other official signs in the languages of national minorities. This process has been always very difficult, because as it teaches the experience of many European countries, it affects issues related the national identity, the role of the national language in the state and the tradition of recognizing linguistic diversity in a given country. In the article, I will try to show that the introduction of such regulations in Poland has been with the one hand an important, perhaps even historical, change in the functioning of the Polish society and administration which consisted of official admission of other languages into the public sphere thus violating the dominant tradition of Polish language dominance in the country. From the other hand, the presence of a minority place-names indicates a change in the way in which minority groups publicly present their ethnic identities. It takes place not only through maintaining national cultures and learning the mother tongue but also through increased visual presence in the public sphere.
The current climate warming results in a quick recession of glaciers on the northern slopes and valleys of the Lindströmfjellet-Hĺbergnuten mountain ridge in Nordenskiöld Land. The equilibrium line altitude has risen from c. 500-550 m in 1936 to c.750 m in 2001 and c. 800 m in 2006. The slopes, almost completely glaciated during the Little Ice Age, and even in 1936, have mostly been abandoned by glaciers afterwards. The upper parts of the glaciers undergo a clear retreat diminishing their accumulative (firn) fields. The lower parts of the active glacial tongues have been transformed into marginal zones built of dead ice covered with morainic and glacifluvial deposits. The surfaces of the marginal zones are progressively lowered due to ablation of dead ice. The state of the described glaciers is not balanced under the current climatic conditions. Thus, the landscape transformation of the mountain ridge will most certainly continue.
The article presents the problem of colonial and postcolonial discourse in relation to Eastern Galicia. It discusses the forms of cultural domination existing throughout history in the region and draws attention to their conscious “playing” by successive rulers of this territory, consequently leading to the formation of memory conflicts.