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Number of results: 41
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Abstract

This article deals with the problem of the knowledge’s utility. This issue is considered from three perspectives. The dualistic perspective is based on the two-component structure: knowledge–reality; the subject–the object. In this regard, the knowledge’s utility is measured by the measure of the power that can be obtained over the world. From the monistic perspective knowledge is useful if it allows the internal improvement of the bearer of the knowledge. Knowledge in terms of the emergent system arises in the fluid cognitive relationship between components of changing system. Relations between the system (whole) and units (part of ) are variable and undetermined by the specificity of the individual components which are also reciprocal and mutually forming.
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Abstract

Decision-making processes, including the ones related to ill-structured problems, are of considerable significance in the area of construction projects. Computer-aided inference under such conditions requires the employment of specific methods and tools (non-algorithmic ones), the best recognized and successfully used in practice represented by expert systems. The knowledge indispensable for such systems to perform inference is most frequently acquired directly from experts (through a dialogue: a domain expert - a knowledge engineer) and from various source documents. Little is known, however, about the possibility of automating knowledge acquisition in this area and as a result, in practice it is scarcely ever used. lt has to be noted that in numerous areas of management more and more attention is paid to the issue of acquiring knowledge from available data. What is known and successfully employed in the practice of aiding the decision-making is the different methods and tools. The paper attempts to select methods for knowledge discovery in data and presents possible ways of representing the acquired knowledge as well as sample tools (including programming ones), allowing for the use of this knowledge in the area under consideration.
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Abstract

The paper focuses on the social education of younger students, which I see as an important area of activity that enables a better understanding of oneself, others and the world. However, this can only be achieved if social topics include issues arising from the needs of individuals and social expectations and if expository methods of teaching are replaced by a reflective problem approach. & en “the different one” will cease to be perceived as inferior, dangerous, marked by stereotypes, and will seem interesting, worth knowing, and the world will become a space for the child to explore and discover in order to know it better and act in it more skillfully. The paper is a study report. The starting point for discussion are two conceptual categories of “the inactive bystander effect” and “the active bystander effect” taken from the Heroic Imagination Project by Philip Zimbardo, which I illustrate with the results of ethnomethodological studies conducted among 7–9-year old children during their classes about social issues. The research objective is to reconstruct the features of social knowledge and the process of its acquiring in the classroom. The paper includes a theoretical part that explains the idea and nature of social education with the emphasis on so-called new thematic areas resulting from the needs of individuals and social expectations. Then the paper describes the concept of the studies. The next section presents the research outcomes and highlights several areas of analysis, including lesson topics on social education, methods of their implementation, and the social importance that is revealed during communication practices. The final part contains research conclusions and summarizing reflections.
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Abstract

Crossing borders: between literature and science – Italian culture of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has offered significant examples of renewal through crossing boundaries between different disciplines. Several writers (Levi, Calvino, Gadda, Sinisgalli, Del Giudice, Giordano, Arpaia, Odifreddi) have overcome the dichotomy between the two cultures that was denounced by Charles Snow in 1959. Sixty years after the famous essay by Snow, the paper will show several examples of connections between literature and science, by using the concept of the “four frontier customs”: “the transit”, “the trespass”, “the alliance”, and “the conflict”.
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Abstract

Lexical knowledge sources are indispensable for research, education and general information. The transition of the reference works to the digital world has been a gradual one. This paper discusses the basic principles and structure of knowledge presentation, as well as user access and knowledge acquisition with specific consideration of contributions in German. The ideal reference works of the future should be interactive, optimally adapted to the user, reliable, current and quotable.
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Abstract

The main aim of the article is an analysis of the privatization of pedagogical knowledge using an example of one of the alternative pedagogies (Montessori Method). We claim that nowadays, pedagogical knowledge is treated as economic capital, and therefore subject to modifications characteristic for neoliberal culture. In our analysis we implement qualitative focus interviews conducted with various members of the Montessori community (teachers, owners and administrators of schools) who have gained access to a rare commodity – that is, knowledge regarding the teaching methodology of this particular pedagogical approach. The results of this empirical research point to mechanisms characteristic for making pedagogical knowledge classiffied and „gilded”, mechanisms that limit it to the closed space of a particular discourse society. We conclude that this ‘inbred’ form of knowledge transfer can lead to an inability to renew meanings and, as a consequence, to the replacement of critical and in depth pedagogical considerations with a form of dogma that may be culturally inadequate and reproduced as a technical procedure, which is far from what Montessori herself wrote about the method.
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Abstract

Recently, the topic of ontologies has growing attention from the IT community. Various processes of ontology creation, integration, and deployment have been proposed. As a consequence there appeared an urgent need for evaluating the resulting ontologies in a quantitative way. A number of metrics has been defined along with different approaches to measuring the properties of ontologies. In the first part of this paper we review the state of the art in this domain. Special attention is devoted to discussing differences between syntactic measures (referring to various properties of graphs that represent ontologies) and semantic measures (reflecting the properties of the space of ontology models). In the second part we propose an alternative approach to quantification of semantics of an ontology. The original proposal presented here exploits specific methods of representing the space of semantic models used for optimization of reasoning. We argue that this approach enables us to capture different kinds of relations among ontology terms and offers possibilities of devising new useful measures.
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Abstract

Recently, the topic of ontologies has growing attention from the IT community. Various processes of ontology creation, integration, and deployment have been proposed. As a consequence there appeared an urgent need for evaluating the resulting ontologies in a quantitative way. A number of metrics has been defined along with different approaches to measuring the properties of ontologies. In the first part of this paper we review the state of the art in this domain. Special attention is devoted to discussing differences between syntactic measures (referring to various properties of graphs that represent ontologies) and semantic measures (reflecting the properties of the space of ontology models). In the second part we propose an alternative approach to quantification of semantics of an ontology. The original proposal presented here exploits specific methods of representing the space of semantic models used for optimization of reasoning. We argue that this approach enables us to capture different kinds of relations among ontology terms and offers possibilities of devising new useful measures.
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Abstract

Background and objective: Urological diseases represent a signifi cant health issue worldwide. Presented study aimed at assessing current urological knowledge and confi dence in performing urological diagnostic and therapeutic procedures among medical students at Jagiellonian University Medical College in Poland and compare it on diff erent stages of the undergraduate medical education. Material and methods: We designed an anonymous survey distributed among Polish students from 1st to 6th year of medical studies, before and aft er clinical urology course. Questions concerned general urological knowledge, prostate diseases, erectile dysfunction, and self-reported practical urological skills. Results: Overall, 437 respondents participated in the survey. Mean total test score in our study groupwas 50.08%, mean general urological knowledge score was 53.44%, mean prostate diseases knowledge score was 55.43%, mean erectile dysfunction score was 36% and mean practical skills score was 45.83%. Mean total test score increased with consecutive years of studies (R = 0.58; p <0.001). Th e risk of an above average total test score was signifi cantly infl uenced by the urology course (OR = 7.95, 95%CI = 1.81–34.84, p = 0.006) and the year of medical studies (4th–6th vs. 1st–3rd) (OR = 5.16, 95%CI = 3.41–7.81, p <0.001). Practical skills score above average was signifi cantly more frequent in the group aft er the urology course (OR = 6.75, 95%CI = 1.54–29.58, p = 0.011). Conclusions: Results of this study reveal low mean scores obtained by students, even aft er completing the urology course, which implies that curriculum requires further development. Urological knowledge and self-assessed practical skills increased with years of medical education. The urology course improved the score obtained in our survey, both in terms of total test score and practical skills.
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Abstract

B a c k g r o u n d: Heart failure (HF) is a life-threatening condition which aff ects up to 2% of contemporary populations. Generally, it is a chronic and progressive disease, however in many cases it can be prevented or treated. Nevertheless, effective control of this disease requires awareness of symptoms in the society. A i m s: The aim of the study was to assess the level of HF knowledge in the Polish population. M e t h o d s: The questionnaire concerning knowledge about HF prepared by the Competence Network HF under the patronage of the European Heart Failure Association of the ESC, was used. The survey included 534 contributors who formed three groups: medical students — in vast majority at fi rst half of the study course (MS) — 198 (37.1%), HF Awareness Day participants (HFDP) — 134 (25.1%) and other (OP) — 202 (37.8%). R e s u l t s: Study groups diff ered in terms of gender, age and level of education. As predicted, MS achieved the highest score (22.5 [20.0–24.0]), compared to HFDP (20.0 [17.0–22.0], P <0.001) and OP (19.0 [16.0– 21.0], P <0.001). Knowledge on typical HF symptoms was alarmingly low in the analyzed groups — dyspnea (MS — 96.0%, HFDP — 78.4%, OP — 74.6%), ankle edema (MS — 79.8%, HFDP — 50.6%, OP — 32.2%), body weight gain (MS — 14.1%, HFDP — 17.2%, OP — 4.5%). By multivariate model medical education (β 3.372, 95% CI 2.738–4.005) and own illness or having relatives or friends with HF (β 0.654, 95% CI 0.066–1.242) independently aff ected the score of awareness questionnaire. C on c l u s i o n s: The basic knowledge on HF in Poland is not sufficient. It is moderately better among MS. Further campaigns improving HF awareness are necessary.
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Abstract

The study presented here is related with one of the components of a hybrid decision support system called CAPCAST (Computer Aided Process - CAST), developed under a research project at the Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology. This is a module for rule generation to serve the knowledge base operating in an expert system. The scope of the system operation involves the selection of technological parameters for the manufacture of machine parts from ductile iron. However, it can be extended to include other materials and technologies.
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Abstract

The article is an answer to questions concerning values, goals and functions of the University in the era of globalization changes that enforce changes in the area of higher education. The author emphasizes the need for balanced development of science, humanities and social sciences as a condition for preserving research independence, as well as the importance of cooperation, both in research and in the „shaping of autonomous institutionalism” of the University (Roggero). The article provides an analysis of the commercialization process of research results, based on data from Polish and foreign studies, and indicates its various forms and social costs. This is a study of the University's condition in the face of the growing importance of transnational corporations, regulating not only the flow of capital, but also the distribution of scientific prestige and appropriating in a different way the effects of academic work. The metaphor of the university as a enterprise/knowledge factory visualizes the errors in perceiving the role that it should play. It proves that research and teaching is not the production and transmission of knowledge, but the creation and sharing of knowledge. In this dialogical process, the idea of a university understood as a community of educators and taught in pursuit of truth is achieved most fully, not for glory, for making profit or for gaining a competitive advantage.
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Abstract

The mining methods are classified as the methods of data analysis and the knowledge acquisition and they are derived from the methods of "Knowledge Discovery". Within the scope of these methods, there are two main variants associated with a form of data,i.e.: "data" and "text mining". The author of the paper tries to find an answer to a question about helpfulness and usefulness of these methods for the purpose of knowledge acquisition in the construction industry. The very process of knowledge acquisition is essential in terms of the systems and tools operating based on knowledge. Nowadays, they are the basis for the tools which support the decision-making processes. The paper presents three cases studies. The mining methods have been applied to practical problems – the selection of an adhesive mortar coupled with alternative solutions, analysis of residential real estate locations under construction by a developer company as well as support of technical management of a building facility with a large floor area.
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Abstract

The article deals with the issue of the meaning of the Polish early education coursebooks for conservation/change in educational practices. It is the liberal and constructivist discourse to which the coursebook authors should refer (especially in the context of the present time and democracy) if these books are to become a tool of the prodevelopmental and emancipatory interest of both students and society. However, the research on Polish coursebooks for early education (grades I – III), show that this very condition has not been ful3 lled. In such a situation it is the German school coursebooks that might be inspiring because of their discursive background as well as of the methodological proposals and the range of content present in them. The article is also an attempt to reconstruct “the image of school” present in German early education coursebooks. It is possible to name and describe the key dimensions in this image such as: the democratic nature of teacher-student relations, the focus on the activation of students’ personal knowledge as well as on their ethical and cognitive autonomy, realistic vision of the world, trust in students’ competences, and creating the sphere of the nearest development.
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Abstract

For development of the knowledge-based economy, potential and quality of university education are an important factors to increase a competitiveness of local, regional, national and international scales. To shape the modern economy, the development of university education and studies corresponding with contemporary socio-economic challenges play an important role. As a result, the formation of scientific and academic centres, which are the basic elements of knowledge-based of economy, determines the improvement of the human resources quality and the increase in innovativeness of spatial systems on various scales. The author has discussed the issue of changes in university education in Poland and its role in socio-economic activation of regional systems, and also defined the structure of major studies in regional (voivodship) systems. This paper research has initiated wider investigations which aim will be to answer to what extent the actual university education structure corresponds to contemporary and future socio-economic needs and competences. this level of education in Poland has to face with the growing globalization processes and increasing spatial competitiveness, not only in a regional scale, but also in the national and international ones, and actual reforms of Polish education and science system.
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Abstract

According to Descartes, it is possible to doubt successfully that there is external world, all around us, yet still to have language, in place, without any complication. According to Wittgenstein, to doubt everything about the external world except language means nothing more than to doubt everything about the external world including language. Why? No speaker is more certain about the meaning of his words than about the external things he believes to be unassailable (for example, that he has two hands and two legs). Without this constitutive connection there would be no communication of a definite sense. Wittgenstein suggests that, after the author of the Meditations on First Philosophy adopts the hypothesis of evil deceiver, we are only under the impression that we deal with language (or that we read a text). We instead deal with symptoms of something rather different. The objective of this paper is to critically reassess Wittgenstein’s criticism of the possibility of holding such a radical sceptical position.
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Abstract

The aim of the article is to compare the thought collective and the interpretive community, two surprisingly similar notions formulated independently by Ludwik Fleck and Stanley Fish. In contemporary discourse, both concepts are used as synonims, while an accurate analysis of the contexts of the use of interesting terms proves that the equivalent of the interpretive community is rather thought collective, as well as the thought style, both of these concepts in the deliberations of Fish are subject to contamination. The exact repartition of the notion of interpretive community seems to be important due to the frequency of its use in works in the field of literary interpretation and cognition. The article also presents more general remarks on the functioning and possible origin of twin terms and their role in scientific cognition.
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Abstract

The aim of the article is to discuss the issue of academic revolution in India. Particularly since the globalization, this revolotion is marked by transformation unprecedented in scope and diversity and education particularly higher education is profoundly influenced by the new order. However, it remains unfinished task due adequate statutory support of the government. In Indian context the national aspirations, to establish knowledge society in the context of increasing globalization, is based on the assumption that higher and technical education essentially empower people with requisite competitive skills and knowledge. The emerging trends demonstrate consumer driven approach to enhance marginal capital gains in educational investment. The higher education being a powerful tool to build knowledge based society and also a critical input underlying sustainable development has received a significant attention nowadays.
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Abstract

The subject matter of this article constitutes the semiotic mapping of human of knowledge which results from cognition. Departing from the presentation of human subjects as world-model-builders, it places epistemology among the sciences of science and the sciences of man. As such the understanding of epistemology is referred either to a static state of knowledge or to a dynamic acquisition of knowledge by cognizing subjects. The point of arrival, in the conclusive part of a this article, constitutes the substantiation of the two understandings of epistemology, specified, firstly, as a set of investigative perspectives, which the subject of science has at his/her disposal as a knower on the metascientific level, or, secondly, as a psychophysiological endowment of a cognizing subject who possesses the ability of learning and/or knowing a certain kind of information about cognized reality.
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Abstract

The wide access to source data, published by numerous websites, results in situation, when information acquisition is not a problem any more. The real problem is how to transform information in the useful knowledge . Cartographic method of research, dealing with spatial data, has been serving this purpose for many years. Nowadays, it allows conducting analyses at the high complexity level, thanks to the intense development in IT technologies, The vast majority of analytic methods utilizing the so-called data mining and data enrichment techniques, however, concerns non-spatial data. According to the Authors, utilizing those techniques in spatial data analysis (including analysis based on statistical data with spatial reference), would allow the evolution of the Spatial Information Infrastructure (SII) into the Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure (SKI). The SKI development would benefit from the existence of statistical geoportal. Its proposed functionality, consisting of data analysis as well as visualization, is outlined in the article. The examples of geostatistical analyses (ANOVA and the regression model considering the spatial neighborhood), possible to implement in such portal and allowing to produce the “cartographic added value”, are also presented here
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Abstract

We propose building a new PKC in a ring structure, the classification of rings being an open problem. The difficulty of the scheme is based on retrieving the eigenvalues of endomorphism on a finite type module over a non-commutative ring. It is resistant to a chosen cipher text attack. Working in the fraction ring of a non-commutative ring makes our scheme a zero-knowledge proof of knowledge, result indistinguishable, in the Naor-Yung model. Finally, a dramatic improvement in security is obtained through the drawing with uniform probability of the working ring at high frequency.
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Abstract

To gather reproducible measurement results, metrologists need a variety of competences. Yet, also other groups of staff in a manufacturing enterprise need competences in metrology in order to assure the appropriate specification of tolerances or sufficient consideration of inspectional requirements in production processes. Therefore, the strict focus of metrological qualification on staff preparing or performing the actual measurements is insufficient for the efficient assurance of conformity. Additionally, on the one hand a demand-oriented qualification concept is needed to impart required fundamental knowledge on manufacturing metrology according to the specific needs of each user group. On the other hand, appropriate measures of knowledge management have to be applied in order to assure a proper application of the gathered knowledge and enhance mutual understanding for the requirements of other involved user groups. Thus, as amendment for user-specific measures of formal qualification, a concept has been developed to enable knowledge transfer among different groups and departments in an enterprise. By this holistic approach, the impact of measures of qualification can be increased and high product quality can be achieved as a common aim of all related groups of staff.
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Abstract

The paradox of enterprise management is the company must continually change in a dynamic and difficult-to-predict environment in order to achieve business continuity and profitability goals. The relatively low efficiency and awareness of the need for change at network organizations means the problems connecting with changes implementation, identification of conditions limiting their realizations and importance of final results are still significant. This article described this issue by the diagnosis of current state of the change management in various types of network organizations and showing how this state can be improved in the future. Assuming the organization will strive for conscious and organized change management.
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Abstract

The Energy Law of April 10, 1997 initiated changes in the energy market in Poland. Actions taken on the basis of this law were aimed at the modernization and development of the power sector. Organizational and legal changes causing the development of distributed generation, thus increasing the level of market competition have been introduced. The care for high quality of customer service, including the protection of vulnerable customers, environmental protection, growing share of renewable energy and emission reduction requirements have become a reality. It seems, therefore, that it is necessary for the Polish energy sector to undergo permanent modernization, to develop the production and industrial infrastructure and to develop modern conventional technologies by way of implementing innovations in the field of energy companies. The author of the paper argues that it is indispensable to make a broadly understood transfer of knowledge and technology to the energy sector on the basis of a knowledge-based economy. This also applies to energy clusters, which currently constitute a platform for cooperation: entrepreneurs, scientific-research units, and public authorities. The functioning of these entities is an important catalyst for the transfer of knowledge and technologies. Their regional nature boosts competitiveness of the involved enterprises, and is a natural way of transferring knowledge to the energy market.
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