The work presents the test result of the influence of cooling rate on the microstructure of AZ91 alloy, Vickers micro-hardness and Brinell hardness. Studies cooling and crystallization of AZ91 alloy was cast into the ceramic shells pre-heated to 180 ° C and then air-cooled at ambient temperature or intensively super cooled in the liquid coolant. The TDA method was applied to record and characterize the thermal effect resulting from the phase transformations occurring during the crystallization of AZ91 alloy. The kinetics and dynamics of the thermal processes of crystallization of AZ91 alloy in the ceramic shells were determined. Metallographic tests were performed with the use of an optical microscope. A comparison of these test results with the thermal effect recorded by way of the TDA method was made. Influence of cooling rate of AZ91 on HV0, 01 micro-hardness and Brinell hardness alloy was examined.
The study discusses the issues connected with the production of thin-walled ceramic slurry in the replicast cs technology. In the ceramic mould production process, a special role is played by the liquid ceramic slurry used to produce the first layer of the mould. The study examines selected technological properties of liquid ceramic slurries used to produce moulds in the replicas cs technology. The ceramic slurries for the tests were prepared based on the binders Ludox Px30 and Sizol 030, enriched with Refracourse flour. The wettability of the pattern's surface by the liquid ceramic slurry and the dependence of the apparent viscosity on the ceramic flour content in the mixture were determined. The wettability of the pattern surface by the liquid ceramic slurry was determined based on the measurement of the wetting angle. The angle was determined by means of an analysis of the computer image obtained with the use of a CDC camera.
The work deals with the influence of change in the filling conditions of the ceramic moulds with plaster binder on the presence of gaseous porosity and the microstructure of the achieved test castings with graded wall thickness. Castings made of EN AC-44000 alloy, produced either by gravity casting, or by gravity casting with negative pressure generated around the mould (according to the Vacumetal technology), or by counter-gravity casting were compared. The results of examinations concerning the density of the produced castings indicate that no significant change in porosity was found. The increased size of silicon crystals was found for the increased wall thicknesses due to the slower cooling and solidification of castings.
The performed examinations concerning the process of filling the plaster ceramic moulds with aluminium alloys allowed to assess the influence of various methods of introducing the metal into the mould cavity on the macro- and microstructure of the obtained experimental castings. The comparison was performed for castings with graded wall thickness made either of EN AC-44000 alloy or of EN AC-46000 alloy, produced either by gravity casting, or by gravity casting with negative pressure generated around the mould (according to the Vacumetal technology), or by counter-gravity casting. It was found that the silicon crystals grow in size with an increase in wall thickness due to the slower cooling and solidification of castings.
The paper presents the use of rapid prototyping technology of three dimensional printing (3DP) to make a prototype shell casting mold. In the first step, for identification purposes, a mold was prepared to enable different alloys to be cast. All molds being cast were designed in a universal CAD environment and printed with the zp151 composite material (Calcium sulfate hemihydrate) with a zb63 binder (2- pyrrolidone). It is designated to be used to prepare colourful models presenting prototypes or casting models and molds. The usefulness of 3DP technology for use with copper alloys, aluminum and zinc was analyzed. The strength of the mold during casting was assumed as a characteristic comparative feature in the material resistance to high temperature, the quality of the resulting casting and its surface roughness. Casting tests were carried out in vacuum – pressure casting. The casting programs applied, significantly increased the quality of castings and enabled precise mold submergence. Significant improvement was noted in the quality compared to the same castings obtained by gravity casting.
The study presents the results of the investigations of the effect of Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Mo and W alloy additions on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy. The examinations were performed within a project the aim of which is to elaborate an experimental and industrial technology of producing elements of machines and devices complex in their construction, made of aluminium alloys by the method of precision investment casting. It was demonstrated that a proper combination of alloy additions causes the crystallization of complex intermetallic phases in the silumin, shortens the SDAS and improves the strength properties: Rm, Rp0.2,HB hardness. Elevating these properties reduces At, which, in consequence, lowers the quality index Q of the alloy of the obtained casts. Experimental casts were made in ceramic moulds preliminarily heated to 160 °C, into which the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy with the additions was cast, followed by its cooling at ambient temperature. With the purpose of increasing the value of the quality index Q, it is recommended that the process of alloy cooling in the ceramic mould be intensified and/or a thermal treatment of the casts be performed (ageing)(T6).
Development of salt cores prepared by high-pressure squeezing and shooting with inorganic binders has shown a high potential of the given technology even for high-pressure casting of castings. Strength, surface quality of achieved castings, and solubility in water become a decisive criterion. The shape and quality of grain surface particularly of NaCl – cooking salts that can be well applied without anticaking additives has shown to be an important criterion. Thus the salt cores technology can cover increasingly growing demands for casting complexity especially for the automobile industry.
The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys using multipoint water mist cooling system. The paper presents results of investigation of crystallization process and microstructure of synthetic hypereutectic AlSi20 alloy. Casts were made in permanent mold cooled with water mist stream. The study was conducted for unmodified AlSi20 alloy and modified with phosphorus, titanium and boron on the research station allowing sequential multipoint cooling using a dedicated program of computer control. The study demonstrated that the use of mold cooled with water mist stream allows the formation of the microstructure of hypereutectic silumins. A wide range of solidification temperature of hypereutectic silumins increases the potential impact of changes in the cooling rate on a size, a number and a morphology of preeutectic silicon and eutectic α+β (Al+Si).
The herein paper contains the results of investigations on a new type of cellulose blend used for the manufacture of profiles applied in the process of making gating systems in the foundry industry. A standard cellulose profile was subjected to an experiment. During the experiment the profile was filled with a liquid cast iron and at the same time the temperatures of the liquid metal crystallizing inside the profile were measured as well as the temperature of the outer layer of the profile was controlled. Further, the microstructure of the cast iron, which crystallized out inside the cellulose profile, was analysed and the cellulose, thermally degraded after the experiment, was verified with the use of the chemical analysis method. Moreover, a quality analysis of the original as well as the degraded cellulose profile was run with the use of the FTIR infrared spectroscopy. The presented results revealed that the cellulose blend is aluminium silicate enriched and contains organic binder additives. The cast iron, which crystallized out, tended to have an equilibrium pearlitic structure with the release of graphite and carbides. The generation of disequilibrium ausferrite phases was also observed in the structure.
The investigation results of the kinetics of binding ceramic moulds, in dependence on the solid phase content in the liquid ceramic slurries being 67, 68 and 69% - respectively, made on the basis of the aqueous binding agents Ludox AM and SK. The ultrasonic method was used for assessing the kinetics of strengthening of the multilayer ceramic mould. Due to this method, it is possible to determine the ceramic mould strength at individual stages of its production. Currently self-supporting moulds, which must have the relevant strength during pouring with liquid metal, are mainly produced. A few various factors influence this mould strength. One of them is the ceramic slurry viscosity, which influences a thickness of individual layers deposited on the wax model in the investment casting technology. Depositing of layers causes increasing the total mould thickness. Therefore, it is important to determine the drying time of each deposited layer in order to prevent the mould cracking due to insufficient drying of layers and thus the weakening of the multilayer mould structure.
The essence of ablation casting technology consists in pouring castings in single-use moulds made from the mixture of sand and a watersoluble binder. After pouring the mould with liquid metal, while the casting is still solidifying, the mould destruction (washing out, erosion) takes place using a stream of cooling medium, which in this case is water. This paper focuses on the selection of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate for moulds used in the ablation casting. The research is based on the use of Cordis binder produced by the Hüttenes-Albertus Company. It is a new-generation inorganic binder based on hydrated sodium silicate. Its hardening takes place under the effect of high temperature. As part of the research, loose moulding mixtures based on the silica sand with different content of Cordis binder and special Anorgit additive were prepared. The reference material was sand mixture without the additive. The review of literature data and the results of own studies have shown that moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate hardened by dehydration is characterized by sufficient strength properties to be used in the ablation casting process. Additionally, at the Foundry Research Institute in Krakow, preliminary semi-industrial tests were carried out on the use of Cordis sand technology in the manufacture of moulds for ablation casting. The possibility to use these sand mixtures has been confirmed in terms of both casting surface quality and sand reclamation.
The work presents the results of the investigations of the effect of inhibitors coated on the internal walls of a ceramic mould on the quality of the obtained casts made of the AM60 alloy containing additions of chromium and vanadium. In order to reduce the reactivity of magnesium alloy cast by the technology of investment casting with the material of the mould and the ambient atmosphere, solid inhibitors were applied in the form of a mixture of KBF4 and H3BO3 after the stage of mould baking and before the mould’s being filled with the liquid alloy. For the purpose of examining the effect of the inhibitors on the surface quality of the obtained casts, profilometric tests were performed and the basic parameters describing the surface roughness, Ra, Rz and Rm, were determined.
The paper presents results of calorimetric studies of foundry nickel superalloys: IN100, IN713C, Mar - M247 and ŻS6 U. Particular attention was paid to determination of phase transiti ons temperatures during heating and cooling. The samples were heated to a temperature of 1500°C with a rate of 10°C ⋅ min – 1 and then held at this temperature for 5 min. After a complete melting, the samples were cooled with the same rat e. Argon with a purity of 99.99% constituted the protective atmosphere. The sample was placed in an alundum crucible with a capacity of 0.45 cm 3 . Temperature and heat calibration was carried out based on the mel ting point of high- purity Ni. The tests were carried out by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a Multi HTC high -temperature calorimeter from Setaram. Based on the DSC curves, the following temperatures were determined: solidus and liquidus, dissolution and precipitation of the γ ’ phase, MC carbides and melting of the γ ’ /γ eutectic. In the temperature range of 100 -1100°C, specific heat capacity of the investigated superalloys was determined. It was found that the IN713C and IN100 alloys exhibit a higher specific heat while compared to the Mar - M247 and ŻS6 U alloys.
The work is a continuation of research concerning the influence of intensive cooling of permanent mold in order to increase the casting efficiency of aluminium alloys using the multipoint water mist cooling system. The paper presents results of investigation of crystallization process and microstructure of synthetic hypereutectic alloys: AlSi15 and AlSi19. Casts were made in permanent mold cooled with water mist stream. The study was conducted for unmodified silumins on the research station allowing the cooling of the special permanent probe using a program of computer control. Furthermore the study used a thermal imaging camera to analyze the solidification process of hypereutectic silumins. The study demonstrated that the use of mold cooled with water mist stream allows in wide range the formation of the microstructure of hypereutectic silumins. It leads to higher homogeneity of microstructure and refinement of crystallizing phases and also it increases subsequently the mechanical properties of casting.
This article presents the results of studies in the hypoeutectic silumin destined for pressure die casting with the simultaneous addition of chromium and tungsten. The study involved the derivative and thermal analysis of the crystallization process, metallographic analysis and mechanical properties testing. Silumin 226 grade was destined for studies. It is a typical silumin to pressure die casting. AlCr15 and AlW8 preliminary alloys were added to silumin. Its quantity allowed to obtain 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% of Cr and W in the tested alloy. Studies of the crystallization process as well as the microstructure of the silumin poured into DTA sampler allowed to state the presence of additional phase containing 0.2% or more Cr and W. It has not occurred in silumin without the addition of above mentioned elements. It is probably the intermetallic phase containing Cr and W. DTA studies have shown this phase crystallizes at a higher temperature range than α (Al) solid solution. In the microstructure of each pressure die casting containing Cr and W the new phases formed. Mechanical properties tests have shown Cr and W additives in silumin in an appropriate amount may increase its tensile strength Rm (about 11%), the yield strength Rp0.2 (about 21%) and to a small extent elongation A.
The paper presents the microstructure and selected properties of ausferritic nodular cast iron annealed at the temperature 520 and 550°C. This choice was dictated by the temperatures used in the practice of nitriding. Nodular graphite in cast iron was obtained with use of Inmold process. Cast iron containing molybdenum and copper ensuring obtaining an ausferrite in the cast iron matrix without the use of heat treatment of castings was tested. The effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and the kind of fracture of the ausferritic nodular cast iron was presented. The effect of an annealing temperature on hardness, impact strength and the microhardness of ausferritic nodular cast iron matrix was shown too. The lamellar structure of phases in the cast iron matrix after annealing has been ascertained. There has been an increase in hardness of an annealed cast iron and microhardness of its matrix. The reduction in the impact strength of the cast iron annealed at 520 and 550°C was approximately 10-30%. Both an increase in the hardness of cast iron as well as an decrease in its impact strength is probably due to the separation of secondary carbides during the heat treatment.
The paper analyses specific defects of castings produced by semi-solid casting process, especially rheocasting method SEED, which uses mechanical swirling for reaching proper structure in semisolid state with high content of solid fraction. Heat treated alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 was applied for producing an Engine Bracket casting part. For observing structure, metallographic observation by light and SEM microscopy was used. To analyse the process, software ProCAST was used to simulate the movements in shot chamber and filling of the mold.
The ecological factor is very important in shaping properties of alloys. It leads to a limitation or elimination, from the surroundings, of harmful elements from the heavy metals group. The so-called eco-brasses group comprises common lead-free brasses containing 10 to 40% of zinc and arsenic brasses of a high dezincification resistance. Among standardized alloys, CW511L alloy ( acc. to EN standard) or MS-60 alloy (acc. to DIN) can be mentioned. Investigations were performed on two different kinds of metal charges: ingots cast by gravity and the ones obtained in the semi-continuous casting technology with using crystallizers. The casting quality was analysed on the basis of the microstructure images and mechanical properties. The investigations also concerned increasing the corrosion resistance of lead-free alloys. This resistance was determined by the dezincification tendency of alloys after the introduction of alloying additions, i.e. aluminium, arsenic and tin. The investigations focused on the fact that not only alloying additions but also the production methods of charge materials are essential for the quality of produced castings. The introduced additions of aluminium and tin in amounts: 0÷1.2 wt% decreased the dezincification tendency, while arsenic, already in the amount of 0.033 wt%, significantly stopped corrosion, limiting the dezincification process of lead-free CuZn37 brass. At higher arsenic contents, corrosion occurs only within the thin surface layer of the casting (20 μ).
The work is a continuation of research concerning the influence of intensive cooling of permanent mold in order to increase the casting efficiency of aluminium alloys using the multipoint water mist cooling system. The paper presents results of investigation of crystallization process and microstructure of multicomponent synthetic hypereutectic alloy AlSi20CuNiCoMg. The study was conducted for unmodified silumin on the research station allowing the cooling of the special permanent sampler using a program of computer control. Furthermore, the study used a thermal imaging camera to analyze the solidification process of multicomponent alloy. The study demonstrated that the use of mold cooled with water mist stream allows in wide range to form the microstructure of hypereutectic multicomponent silumin. It leads to higher homogeneity of microstructure and refinement of crystallizing phases of casting.
The work is a continuation of research on the use water mist cooling in order to increase efficiency of die-casting aluminum alloys. The paper presents results of research and analysis process, spraying water and generated a stream of water mist, the effect of the type of nozzle, the nozzle size and shape of the emitting of the water mist on the wall surface of casting die on the microstructure and geometry of water mist stream and cooling efficiency. Tests were used to perform high-speed camera to record video in the visible and infrared camera. Results were used to develop a computerized image analysis and statistical analysis. The study showed that there are statistical relationships between water and air flow and geometry of the nozzle and nozzle emitting a stream of microstructure parameters of water mist and heat the incoming stream. These relationships are described mathematical models that allow you to control the generating of adequate stream of water mist and a further consequence, the cooling efficiency of casting die.
The article presents the investigations of 7xxx aluminium alloys performed by the method of thermal and derivational analysis. The studies made it possible to identify the effect of the changes in the Cu concentration, the total Zn and Mg weight concentrations and the Zn/Mg weight concentration ratio on their crystallization process: the cooling as well as the kinetics and dynamics of the thermal process of cooling and crystallization. Metallographic studies were performed on the microstructure of the examined alloys and their HB hardness was measured. The evaluation of the changes was presented in reference to the model alloys EN AW-7003 and EN AW-7010, whose microstructure under the conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium are described by the phase diagrams: Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu. The performed investigations confirmed that the hardness HB of the examined alloys is mainly determined by the reinforcement of the matrix αAl by the introduced alloy additions and the presence of phases Θ(Al2Cu) and S(Al2CuMg) rich in copper, as well as η(MgZn2), in the examined alloys' microstructure. The increase of the amount of intermetallic phases precipitated in the microstructure of the examined alloys is caused, beside Cu, by the characteristic change of Zn wt. concentration and Mg. It was proposed that the process of one-stage thermal treatment of the examined alloys be introduced at a temperature of up to tJ-20 °C, which will prevent the exceedance of the solidus temperature.
Silicon bronzes are characterised by good mechanical properties and by high corrosion and mechanical wear resistance. The process of sleeve casting by means of the centrifugal casting with the horizontal axis of the mould rotation was analysed. The assessment of the influence of modification and centrifugal casting parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of alloys was carried out in the hereby work. Zirconium was applied as a modifier. Speed of rotation of the mould was the variable parameter of the centrifugal casting. The investigation results were summarised on the basis of the microstructure analysis and mechanical properties determination: UTS, proof stress, A10 and BHN. The experiment aimed at finding the information in which way the modification together with changing the pouring parameters influence the mechanical properties of the CuSi3Zn3FeMn alloy.
The new investigation method of a permeability of ceramic moulds applied in the investment casting technology, is presented in the paper. Some concepts of performing permeability measurements are shown. Investigations in which the influence of the solid phase fraction in the liquid ceramic moulding sand (LCMS) on a permeability of a multi-layer ceramic mould were performed and discussed. The permeability was estimated during two the most important stages of the technological process: in the first – after wax melting and in the second – after mould annealing. Also an influence of the matrix grain sizes (material for sprinkling) on a ceramic mould permeability was estimated.
The study involved using the liquid-solid compound casting process to fabricate a lightweight ZE41/AlSi12 bimetallic material. ZE41 melt heated to 660 oC was poured onto a solid AlSi12 insert placed in a steel mold. The mold with the insert inside was preheated to 300 oC. The microstructure of the bonding zone between the alloys was examined using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition was determined through linear and point analyses with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). The bonding zone between the magnesium and aluminum alloys was about 250 μm thick. The results indicate that the microstructure of the bonding zone changes throughout its thickness. The structural constituents of the bonding zone are: a thin layer of a solid solution of Al and Zn in Mg and particles of Mg-Zn-RE intermetallic phases (adjacent to the ZE41 alloy), a eutectic region (Mg17(Al,Zn)12 intermetallic phase and a solid solution of Al and Zn in Mg), a thin region containing fine, white particles, probably Al-RE intermetallic phases, a region with Mg2Si particles distributed over the eutectic matrix, and a region with Mg2Si particles distributed over the Mg-Al intermetallic phases matrix (adjacent to the AlSi12 alloy). The microstructural analysis performed in the length direction reveals that, for the process parameters tested, the bonding zone forming between the alloys was continuous. Low porosity was observed locally near the ZE41 alloy. The shear strength of the AZ91/AlSi17 joint varied from 51.3 to 56.1 MPa.
In highly developed countries, a significant progress in the use of alternative and clean energy sources has recently been observed. The European Union has implemented a programme to build wind turbines. It is estimated that in the coming years, thanks to the support in tax and credit, the global energy will develop very intensively. Many components of the wind turbines are castings. The basic material used for these castings is ductile iron, which in this particular case must meet high requirements imposed by the operating conditions of wind turbines. Anticipating an increase in customer demand for this type of castings, Krakodlew SA has decided to modernize its foundry using the ability to obtain external financing. The ductile iron manufacturing technology is now being developed and adapted to the specific conditions of the foundry plant, including the melting process yielding cast material with the required chemical composition, the technology of moulding, and the conditions for possible secondary metallurgy, spheroidizing treatment and graphitizing inoculation. The fulfilment of the imposed conditions for the casting production demands the use of advanced casting technologies introduced to the manufacturing process. The development of technology to launch the production of ductile iron castings for the wind power industry was supported by The National Centre for Research and Development (NCBiR). This article presents part of research on the binding kinetics of furan resin sands and choice of their composition for moulds and cores to make heavy castings used as components of equipment for the wind power industry.