Plant responses to glyphosate applied at different doses were examined for one glyphosate resistant (R) and one glyphosate susceptible (S) population of Conyza albida and C. bonarienis. Growth rates and development stages of five R C. albida and three R C. bonarienis populations were also compared with those of their respective S counterparts to investigate the possible impact of the glyphosate resistance trait on their fitness. The GR50 values for C. albida R (3.94−5.22 kg a.i. · ha−1) and S (0.24−0.31 kg a.i. · ha−1) populations were higher than those of C. bonariensis R (0.60−1.51 kg a.i. · ha−1) and S (0.10−0.13 kg a.i. · ha−1). The growth rate (slope b) of one R C. albida population was lower than the respective S and other R populations, while growth rates of most R and S C. bonariensis populations were similar. Some R populations showed inconsistent differences in some development stages when compared to those of the S ones, which cannot be attributed to the glyphosate resistance trait.
Temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) method was used to obtain bulk Si continuously for the efficient separation and purification of primary Si from the Si-Al alloy in this work. The effects of alloy thickness, temperature gradient and holding time in TGZM purification technology were investigated. Finally, the continuous growth of bulk Si without eutectic inclusions was obtained. The results showed that the growth rate of bulk Si was independent of the liquid zone thickness. When the temperature gradient was changed from 2.48 K/mm to 3.97 K/mm, the growth rate of bulk Si was enhanced from 7.9×10–5 mm/s to 2.47×10–4 mm/s, which was increased by about 3 times. The bulk Si could grow continuously and the growth rate was decreased with the increase of holding time from 1 h to 5 h. Meanwhile, low refining temperature was beneficial to the removal of impurities. With a precipitation temperature of 1460 K and a temperature gradient of 2.48 K/mm, the removal rates of Fe, P and B were 99.8%, 94.0% and 63.6%, respectively.
Among the various thin film coating techniques, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has features of good controllability of the thickness, excellent step-coverage in 3-dimensional object even in the sub-nm thickness range at the relatively low deposition temperature. In this study, SnO2 thin films were grown by ALD in the variation of substrate temperatures from 150 to 250°C. Even such a low temperature may influence on the growth kinetics of the ALD reaction and thus the physical characteristics of thin films, such as crystallinity, film density and optical band gap, etc. We observed the decrease of the growth rate with increasing substrate temperature, at the same time, the density of the film was decreased with increasing temperature. Steric hindrance effect of the precursor molecule was attributed to the inverse relationship of the growth temperature and growth rate as well as the film density. Optical indirect band gap energy (~3.6 eV) of the ALD-grown amorphous SnO2 films grown at 150°C was similar with that of the literature value, while slightly lower band gap energy (~3.4 eV) was acquired at the films grown at higher temperature.