This paper presents results of investigations on the application of CuO-water nanofluids for intensification of convective heat transfer. Performance of nanofluids with 2.2 and 4.0 vol.% CuO NPs (nanoparticles) content were examined with regard to heat transfer coefficient and pressure losses in case of turbulent flow in a tube. Negligible impact of examined nanofluid on heat transfer improvement was found. Moreover, measured pressure losses significantly exceeded those determined for primary base liquid. The observations showed that application of nanofluid for heat transfer intensification with a relatively high solid load in the examined flow range is rather controversial.
The present work deals with continuum mechanical considerations for deformable and rigid solids as well as for fluids. A common finite element framework is used to approximate all systems under considerations. In particular, we present a standard displacement based formulation for the deformable solids and make use of this framework for the transition of the solid to a rigid body in the limit of infinite stiffness. At last, we demonstrate how to immerse a discretized solid into a fluid for fluid-structure interaction problems.