This article deal with non-conventional methods to affect the crystallization of Al-alloys by the application of electromagnetic field. The application of electromagnetic field is not technically complicated, it does not require mechanical contact with the melt, and the scale of the crystallization influence is not dependent on the thickness of the casting. Two experimental materials were used: AlSi10MgMn and AlSi8Cu2Mn and two values of electromagnetic induction: B = 0.1 T a B = 0.2 T. The best results for alloy AlSi10MgMn were achieved by application of electromagnetic field with induction B = 0.2 T; during this experiment the best mechanical properties were achieved - the biggest increase of mechanical properties was recorded. The best results for alloy AlSi8Cu2Mn were achieved by combination of electromagnetic field with induction B = 0.1 T and modification by 0.05 wt. % Sr. In this case we don´t recommend to use electromagnetic field with induction B = 0.2 T; because of deposition of coarse grains and decreasing of mechanical properties.
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), based on the IEEE 802.16 standards, is a technology that offers low cost mobile broadband access to multimedia and internet applications for operators and end-users. Similarly to cellular phone or other Radio Frequency devices, WiMAX has to be considered as a possible source of electromagnetic pollution and so monitoring its emission could be necessary to verify compliance with the applicable emission limits. Generally, the monitoring of the electromagnetic pollution is performed by means of a suitable measurement chain constituted by an antenna connected to a traditional spectrum analyzer. The use of this kind of device to measure the power of digital modulated noise-like signals, such as WiMAX, requires to use proper measurement methods and to carefully set many instrument parameters to obtain reliable measurement results, otherwise a significant underestimate or overestimate of the human exposure can be obtained. In this framework, this paper investigates the feasibility of using the traditional spectrum analyzer to perform the electromagnetic pollution measurements due to WiMAX devices. A large experimental campaign is carried out to identify the most proper measurement method and spectrum analyzer settings able to warrant reliable measurements.
This paper describes the application of the skull melting method for an artificial generation of particulate material of inorganic compounds like CsOH, NaOH, SnO2 and UO2. The skull melting process is analyzed analytically. Thereby the electromagnetic field is calculated by a one dimensional time harmonic model. Thermal losses are estimated by simple analytical formulas. Finally an electromagnetic thermal field coupling is performed to calculate the temperature distribution inside the crucible, considering transient thermal effects. The skull melting process is simulated for the example of UO2. Under consideration of the given material properties it is shown that the skull melting method can be applied to fuse UO2.
To study the principle of loss and heat at the end region of large 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator, 3D transient electromagnetic field and 3D steady temperature field finite element (FE) models of the end region are established respectively. Considering the factors such as rotor motion, core non-linearity and time-varying of electromagnetic field, the anisotropic heat conductivity and different heat dissipation conditions of stator end region, a 50 Hz, 1150 MW, 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator is investigated. The loss and heat at the generator end region are calculated respectively at no-load and rated-load, and the calculation results are compared with the test data. The result shows that the calculation model is accurate and the generator design is suitable. The method is valuable for the research of loss and heat at the end region of large 4-poles nuclear power turbine generator and the improvement of the generator’s operation stability. The method has been applied successfully for the design of the larger nuclear power turbine generators.
In order to research the losses and heat of damper bars thoroughly, a multislice moving electromagnetic field-circuit coupling FE model of tubular hydro-generator and a 3D temperature field FE model of the rotor are built respectively. The factors such as rotor motion and non-linearity of the time-varying electromagnetic field, the stator slots skew, the anisotropic heat conduction of the rotor core lamination and different heat dissipation conditions on the windward and lee side of the poles are considered. Furthermore, according to the different operating conditions, different rotor structures and materials, compositive calculations about the losses and temperatures of the damper bars of a 36 MW generator are carried out, and the data are compared with the test. The results show that the computation precision is satisfied and the generator design is reasonable.
Induction surface hardening means the hardening of a thin zone of the material only, while its core remains soft. The paper deals with the modelling of the Consecutive Dual Frequency Induction Hardening (CDFIH) of gear wheels and its validation. For gear wheels with modulus m smaller than 6 mm a contour profile of hardness distribution could be obtained. The investigated gear wheel is heated first by a medium frequency inductor to the temperature approximately equal to the modified lower temperature Ac1m. It means beginning of the austenite transformation. Then the gear wheel is heated by the high frequency inductor to the hardening temperature making it possible to complete the austenite transformation and immediately cooled. In order to design the process it is necessary to identify modified critical temperatures and to obtain expected temperature distribution within the whole tooth.
The problems connected to developing inductive power transfer IPT systems in aspects of high efficiency and suppression of electromagnetic field (EMF) emission are discussed. It is shown how important it is to compensate for large leakage impedance of IPT coils (air transformer) to improve efficiency of high power transfer. Such compensation circuits operating with resonant frequencies at soft switching conditions additionally allow for reduction of switching losses in power semiconductor devices of converters. The consideration has been illustrated and verified by experimental results measured on two different test stands (50 kW with planar coils and with two 12 kW receiver coils) built in a laboratory of the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Electrotechnical Institute.
In this paper, a three-air-gapped structure of a ferrite core for a resonant inductor is proposed. The electromagnetic and thermal field models are built using a 3D finite element method. Compared with the conventional signal-air-gapped structure of a ferrite core, the simulation and analysis results show that the proposed three-air-gapped ferrite core resonant inductor can reduce eddy-current loss and decrease temperature rise. In addition, the optimal position of air-gapped is presented.
This paper deals with some aspects of formulation and implementation of a broadband algorithm with build-in analysis of some dispersive media. The construction of the finite element method (FEM) based on direct integration of Maxwell’s equations and solution of some additional convolution integrals is presented. The broadband, fractional model of permittivity is approximated by a set of some relaxation sub-models. The properties of the 3D time-dependent formulation of the FEM algorithm are determined using a benchmark problem with the Cole-Cole and the Davidson-Cole models. Several issues associated with the implementation and some constraints of the broadband finite element algorithm are presented.
Regarding the importance of short circuit and inrush current simulations in the split-winding transformer, a novel nonlinear equivalent circuit is introduced in this paper for nonlinear simulation of this transformer. The equivalent circuit is extended using the nonlinear inductances. Employing a numerical method, leakage and magnetizing inductances in the split-winding transformer are extracted and the nonlinear model inductances are estimated using these inductances. The introduced model is validated and using this nonlinear model, inrush and short-circuit currents are calculated. It has been seen that the introduced model is valid and suitable for simulations of the split-winding transformer due to various loading conditions. Finally, the effects of nonlinearity of the model inductances are discussed in the following.
The uncontrolled rectifier and controlled rectifier which use fixed switching frequency control strategy are applied usually during the working of a high-power high- speed permanent magnet generator (HSPMG). Even for the controlled rectifier, it will generate harmonics. The electromagnetic performance of the HSPMG is also affected by these harmonics. In this paper, the influences of the fixed switching frequency control strategy on a HSPMG were studied. Based on the Fourier theory, the harmonic currents of the generator were analyzed, and the change of harmonic distribution range and current total harmonic distortion (THD) were obtained. By using an indirect field-circuit coupling method, the influences of the fixed switching frequency control strategy on the losses and torque of the generator were analyzed. The relations between the switching frequency and the losses and torque of the generator were obtained, and the change mechanism of the loss was revealed. The obtained conclusions can provide reference for the optimized choice of the switching frequency of the distributed generation system with the HSPMG. It can also provide support for the HSPMG electromagnetic structural optimization and the optimization of the loss and harmonic on the system level.