The essay is meant to be a reflection, a conclusion of sorts regarding the topic proposed by the organizers of the "Towards beauty." It is meant to be about the problems of introducing aesthetics to public spaces. From the point of view of many disciplines. This academic event took place in the April of 2014 at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Gdańsk. The Author assumed the perspective of an architect when contemplating the problems being discussed. This approach emphasizes the role that is played by the concept of the urban landscape. The work is composed of an introduction, which illustrates the reasons for adopting this perspective. This part is followed by a classification of the stances and academic research that has been presented in the delivered lectures and essays. This generalization has the form of a typology composed of five points, which describe the general issues that were discussed. The overarching thesis of this is essay is the statement that the choice of problems that have been discussed at the conference are the result of a contemporary model of thinking about the management of space, which results from a much too liberal approach that has been adopted after the socioeconomic changes that occurred in 1989. This begs the question whether the issues that are important in the context of the aesthetics of cities are effects the causes of which could lie in society's approach to its reality. Due to the aim of this essay being a commentary on the academic event that was the Gdańsk conference and a sort of reflection on the issues that were being discussed there, the Author decided not to provide it with a conclusion at the end. The Author's comments contained in this work are only a voice in the discussion and a complementation of the opinions that have been presented during the conference. The article is supposed to elicit a familiarity with the presented issues so that the reader can form their opinions, and, what is perhaps even more important, provide the foundation for future academic discussion on the topic of the beauty of the cityscape.
This article deals with the problem of the knowledge’s utility. This issue is considered from three perspectives. The dualistic perspective is based on the two-component structure: knowledge–reality; the subject–the object. In this regard, the knowledge’s utility is measured by the measure of the power that can be obtained over the world. From the monistic perspective knowledge is useful if it allows the internal improvement of the bearer of the knowledge. Knowledge in terms of the emergent system arises in the fluid cognitive relationship between components of changing system. Relations between the system (whole) and units (part of ) are variable and undetermined by the specificity of the individual components which are also reciprocal and mutually forming.
The aim of the article is to diagnose the regional diversification of development in the axiological context. The starting point in this analysis is the term: development. This category is understood in a multidimensional manner. Presented in this paper conceptual model of development allows to distinguish three levels of analysis of the development process: material, social and cultural. Identification of the axiological phenomenon of the diversification of regional development in this research is ultimately served by the systematization tool – typology, introducing the division into the culture of honour, achievements and joy.
Cultural, ideological and social sources of anarchy in spatial management in Poland. The article is an individual statement about the state of the steering sphere of spatial management in Poland. The author puts forward the thesis that for years there has been anarchy in it, which deepened in the period of systemic transformation. Despite the established legal framework of spatial management, consistent with European standards and the existence of spatial planning institutions at local, regional and national level, manifestations of anarchy are widely visible. This is an important, though not the only, reason for the widely observed and repeatedly documented disorder and even spatial chaos in the material sphere of spatial management in Poland. The sources of this anarchy are sought in a specific Polish culture, ideologies professed by professionals related to spatial management, and in old and new social divisions.
A mathematical model of a hybrid culture system supported with a stationary layer of liquid perfluorochemical (PFC) as a source of O2 for cells which grow in the aqueous phase of culture medium has been developed and discussed. The two-substrate Monod kinetics without inhibition effects, i.e. the Tsao-Hanson equation, has been assumed to characterise the biomass growth. The Damköhler number which relates the growth rate to the mass transfer effects has been used to appraise the regime (i.e. diffusion-limited or kinetics) of the whole process. The proposed model predicted accurately previously published data on the submerged batch cultures of Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 heterotrophic cells performed in a culture system supported with a stationary layer of hydrophobic perfluorodecalin as a liquid O2 carrier. Estimated values of the parameters of the model showed that the process proceeded in the kinetics regime and the growth kinetics, not the effects of the mass transfer between aqueous phase and liquid PFC, had essential influence on the growth of biomass.
Fully synthetic, biochemically inert and water-immiscible liquid perfluorochemicals (PFCs) are recognised as flexible liquid carriers/scavengers of gaseous compounds (respiratory gases mainly, i.e. O2 and CO2) and increasingly applied in bioprocess engineering. A range of unmatched physicochemical properties of liquid PFCs, i.e. outstanding chemo- and thermostability, extremely low surface tension, simultaneous hydro- and lipophobicity, which result from carbon chain substitution with fluorine atoms (the most electronegative chemical element) and the presence of intramolecular C-F bonds (the strongest single bond known in organic chemistry) have been described in detail. Exceptional propensity to solubility of respiratory gases in liquid perfluorinated compounds has been widely discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of bioprocess applications of liquid PFCs in the form of a pure PFC as well as in an emulsified form have been pointed out. A liquid PFC-mediated mass transfer intensification in various types of microbial, plant cell and animal cell culture systems: from miniaturised microlitre-scale cultures, via biomaterial-based scaffolds containing culture systems, to litre-scale bioreactors, has been reviewed and elaborated on bearing in mind the benefits of bioprocesses.
Cell culture transplantation is very promising in the treatment of various diseases. Cells obtained from a number of sources have been analysed to provide a basis for further studies in the area of regenerative medicine. The objective of the study was to compare morphological and phenotypic changes in cat adipose tissue and bone marrow cell cultures from the first to fifth passages. Adipose tissue and bone marrow were used to obtain cell cultures (coming from 3 cats) using standard methods with own modification. Phenotype changes were monitored by CD-marker identification and CD pan-keratin. The cytogenetic analysis was performed on 50 metaphase plates of cell cultures from the first to fifth passage. Cytogenetic assays showed that the adipose tissue cell culture (ATCC) at all passages was more stable than the bone marrow cell culture (BMCC).
An efficient micropropagation system for Taraxacum pieninicum using seedling explants germinated in vitro is described. Shoot tips and fragments of cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots were isolated from several-day-old seedlings. The highest response, 100% frequency with 12.3 axillary shoots/explant, was from shoot tips on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BA and 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. In subsequent subcultures the number of shoots was significantly higher on all explants cultured on medium containing 0.25 and 0.5 mg L-1 BA, and the multiplication rate was highest (20 shoots/explant) in the 4th passage. Shoots rooted on MS and 1/2 MS medium; the highest rooting frequency was 90% and the highest number of roots 2.7/shoot. Rooted plants showed 96.2% survival in sterile soil:sand, and 100% survival in hydroponic culture. Regenerated plants flowered in the second year after acclimatization and yielded viable seeds. This protocol for obtaining complete plants through micropropagation may prove useful for conservation of the genetic resources of this and other endangered species
The article presents the problem of colonial and postcolonial discourse in relation to Eastern Galicia. It discusses the forms of cultural domination existing throughout history in the region and draws attention to their conscious “playing” by successive rulers of this territory, consequently leading to the formation of memory conflicts.
The paper presents Lusatian culture bronze artefacts recovered in the Orava region in northern Slovakia, which allows for tracing connections with the territory of present-day Poland in the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The object is to discuss the provenance of the Lusatian bronze artefacts and analyse possible intercultural contacts with the north, across the Carpathians.
The author, as a former pupil of the title figure of this paper, and as a leading his cooperator in numerous creative works, recalls memoires and presents an analysis of the personality of late professor of architectute, J. Tadeusz Gawłowski. The paper represents both – objective and official features of chronicle, hence also introduces readers into more personal secrets of the outstanding architect: creator, scholar and academic teacher – being simultaneously a picturesque and friendly person. He was connected mainly with Kraków University of Technology, but sharing also his activity in order to fulfill needs of three other, important academic schools.
Conservation of the Old Town Zamość began to realize almost a hundred years ago. Then the eminent preachers of culture in the early period. 20.year inter-made idea of restoring the prestige of the works of Polish culture. The idea of protecting national cultural heritage grew gradually until such time as the first scientific research, development of standards and principles of care and maintenance. Today Zamość was inscribed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Many things made, much remains to be done.
The article contains reflections on the role of reflexivity in contemporary education. The most important is to emphasize the importance of a pragmatic reflexivity in constructing the cultural identity of a young man. The majority of the text consists of references to the thoughts of Hans Georg Gadamer in the context of pragmatics of reflexivity. In conclusion, the author proposes a pedagogical definition of reflexivity.
The article presents the author’s considerations relating to the current and common problem of multiculturalism. Nowadays “multiculturalism” can be defined as co-existence – in the determined physical, social and political sphere as well as in a concrete historical period of time – of many ethnic groups representing different axiological and normative systems. The social created by multiplicity of ethnic groups is very often a result of migration processes which totally formed such states as Canada or Australia. The sources of the European multiculturalism were, on the one hand, the officially accepted workforce as Federal Republic of Germany, on the other one – immigration being the effect of the colonial past of such states as France, Holland or Britain. All these countries took up more or less advanced actions towards being able to deal with the deepening ethnic diversification. There appeared political project – multiculturalism.
Crossing borders: between literature and science – Italian culture of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has offered significant examples of renewal through crossing boundaries between different disciplines. Several writers (Levi, Calvino, Gadda, Sinisgalli, Del Giudice, Giordano, Arpaia, Odifreddi) have overcome the dichotomy between the two cultures that was denounced by Charles Snow in 1959. Sixty years after the famous essay by Snow, the paper will show several examples of connections between literature and science, by using the concept of the “four frontier customs”: “the transit”, “the trespass”, “the alliance”, and “the conflict”.
Messina in the stories of Polish travelers over the course of centuries: the double face of the city – The article presents Messina’s ‘verbal postcards’ left by Polish participants in the Grand Tour and travelers who visited Sicily in later times. Travelers whose accounts are widely known, such as Anonymous (1595), Michał Borch, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Chrystian Kamsetzer (XVIII c.), Zygmunt Krasiński (nineteenth century), but also less well-known ones such as writer Zofia Sokołowska, arriving in Sicily in the tragic year of the earthquake (1908), left descriptions from their stays in Messina about the emotional charge they felt, one closely related to the historical moment in which they arrived on the island. This will therefore be a thorough analysis of a fragment of the Sicilian journey concerning Messina left by some Polish travelers, taking into account their professions, areas of interest and the period in which they were in Sicily.
Throughout the period between the 11th and 15th centuries, Christian and Arabic countries as well as territorial dominions, although faced with feudal political chaos, managed to take joint action against pirates. Piracy was unanimously treated as a major risk both to inshore safety and safety at sea, as well as to trade and economic growth. Attempts were made to establish institutional framework for prosecuting the pirates and setting terms under which respective counties would remain legally liable. International treaties had laid foundations for the aforementioned framework and imposed certain liabilities on the countries. A number of treaties concluded during the period under discussion and published by an archivist in the 19th century enables modern researchers to get to know the Law of Nations created somewhere in between the Islamic and European legal cultures.
The purpose of the paper is to analyze the issue of the relations between being consumers and being citizens in the consumer society. Many researchers point to deepening crisis of mature democracy and a decrease in social and civil participation, which entails most developed and developing countries, including Poland. The phenomenon present in a context of consumer society and its culture are often indicated among causes of this state. Based on the analysis of social changes in modern world, Zygmunt Bauman arrives at a conclusion that as an individualized entity, the consumer is an enemy of the citizen. The citizen and the consumer have different interests, hierarchies of values and ways of perceiving the world. The Zygmunt Bauman’s thesis is being analyzed in the paper on the basic of author’s research results. In the first part of the study, the typical characteristics of “model” members of a consumer society in the liquid modernity era are discussed (with reference to Bauman’s and other authors’ views). The way a consumer society affects the mentality of its members (the consumers) and their relations with groups, or larger communities (especially civil participation) is addressed. The second part is devoted to the issue of relations between being consumers and being citizens and is based on the research results of author’s research results. The relationships between consumer orientations of AMU students and chosen elements of their civic and social participation are discussed. Finally, the study is concluded with an attempt at explaining the results of research with reference to Bauman’s concept.
The Corded Ware culture societies inhabiting the Carpathian zone used various outcrops of flints to processing axes: Volhynian, Turonian (the Świeciechów and the Gościeradów types), Jurassic A and G-type, cretaceous K-type as well as siliceous marl and radiolarite. From the analysed area 81 axes associated with the Corded Ware culture are known. Most of them come from funeral sites — from grave pits or burial mounds. The predominance of the Volhynian flint is observable in the whole area to the east of Wisłok River, basins of the San River, and in the upper basins of the Tisza and Dniester Rivers. Axes from niche graves on the Rzeszów Foothills, where the Świeciechów flint prevails, are specific in this scope or raw materials distribution. Dispersion of flints can be used indirectly as basis for reconstructing movements of human groups using these raw materials, as well as determining directions of their interactions. It can be noticed that communities of the Corded Ware culture from the Dniester Basin resembled in this respect their counterparts from the Roztocze and the Sokal Ridge, while those from the Rzeszów Foothills shows connections both with the“Volhynian zone” and the Lesser Polish Małopolska Upland.
The focus of the article is the Vatin culture settlement at the site of Vinča-Belo Brdo in Northern Serbia. The general idea is that this settlement, whose existence was relatively short in time, benefited from being established by the Danube — a great connective factor in the world of the Middle Bronze Age. It shares many characteristics with the contemporary settlements in the southernmost part of the Carpathian basin, starting from the position in the vicinity of the Danube, at the places which had already been settled in prehistory, prior to the Middle Bronze Age. Not only do they have pottery style in common, but the wider repertoire of finds illustrating the material culture. What’s more, comparison of the material remains from Vinča with the neighbouring sites from the left Danube bank enlightens how the Vatin culture was integrated into a wider space of the Bronze Age cultures of the Carpathian basin, influencing the Balkans hinterland, too.
The article presents results of the author’s bachelor thesis, which deals with detailed cataloguing and analysing of findings of so-called Scythian character in the Moravia in the late Early Iron Age period. The author based this article on catalogue from his thesis. Relevant analogies and typological assignments were studied for concerning every subject in the catalogue and on their basis there was made general chronological classification of each piece. The aim of this article is to present observations that resulted from a detailed evaluation, on its basis occurrence of the subjects of so-called Scythian origin in the Moravia were divided into three time horizons.
The study examined tyrosol glucosyltransferase activity and the efficiency of salidroside production in natural and transformed root cultures of Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Regel et Maximowicz. Neither enzyme activity nor salidroside accumulation were detected in natural and transformed root cultures maintained in media without tyrosol. To induce TGase activity in biotransformation reactions, tyrosol was added to natural and transformed root cultures on the day of inoculation. The first peak of TGase activity (0.23 U/μg) was detected on day 9 in natural root culture, accompanied by the highest salidroside content (15.79 mg/g d.w.), but TGase activity was highest (0.27 U/μg) on day 15. In transformed root culture, day 18 showed the highest TGase activity (0.15 U/μg), which coincided with the highest salidroside content (2.4 mg/g d.w.). Based on these results, tyrosol was added to the medium on the days of highest previously detected activity of TGase: day 15 for natural root cultures and day 18 for transformed root cultures. This strategy gave significantly higher yields of salidroside than in the cultures supplemented with tyrosol on the day of inoculation. In natural root culture, salidroside production reached 21.89 mg/g d.w., while precursor feeding in transformed root cultures caused a significant increase in salidroside accumulation to 7.55 mg/g d.w. In all treatments, salidroside production was lower in transformed than in natural root cultures.