The paper reports the study of the complexation processes in aqueous solution of α-CD and DMSO. Cyclodextrins (CDs) (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are cyclic oligosaccharides formed by glucose units interconnected by α-(1,4) linkages; α-CD is one of three the most common CDs. It consists of six glucopyranose units. The speed of ultrasonic waves has been measured by the resonance method on ResoscanTM System apparatus. Some collateral data, such as density and heat capacity of the system, have also been measured. On the basis of the experimental data the excess adiabatic compressibility was determined. The extremes of the excess adiabatic compressibility function for different mixture compositions allowed us to establish the composition of molecular complexes formed in the solution. The obtained results suggest the formation of the α-CD with DMSO inclusion complexes with chemical stoichiometric ratio value of 1:1.
To improve dye retention, there is a concurrent interest in the development and optimization of an alternative and promising method for the dye recovery in aqueous solutions. In this regard, considerable attention was paid to the polyoxometalates (POMs) assisted ultraﬁ ltration (POMAUF). The aim of the present study is to eliminate toluidine blue (TB) dye by ultraﬁ ltration membrane using keggin polyoxometalates (POMs) as complexing agents. In the ﬁ rst step, the keggin polyoxometalates K3[PW12O40]∙6H2O(PW12) and K7[PW) were prepared. Then, the obtained powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopies. Afterwards, the removal of toluidine blue (TB) using polyoxometalates assisted ultraﬁ ltration (POMAUF) was studied. Factors affecting the retention of dye and permeate ﬂ ux such as transmembrane pressure, operating time, polyoxometalates concentration, ionic strength, surfactant and pH were investigated. All results of both compounds have been presented and discussed. The results reveal that the addition of POMs leads to an increase in dye retention from 11 to 95% for the PW 12 and to 98% for the PW . The results of this work have thus suggested the promising enhancement of ultraﬁ ltration membrane selectivity for the dye removal using new complexing agents such as POMs in place of polyelectrolytes and surfactants.
The never before published paper is one of the last writings of Juliusz Żórawski (1898–1967), professor architect and theoretician of architecture. The notion of limited complexity introduced here relates to individual characteristics of the conceptual abilities of man. Tasks of architecture are based on prognoses, and this brings with it the risk of making errors. The author criticises J. Fourastié’s prognoses related to the Earth’s overpopulation in 3000 AD, which would force building new cities above the ground, contrary to human psychosomatic nature and habitude.
This paper is an attempt to explain the concept of emergence of spatial systems. It indicates basic features of this concept, such as: coevolution, selforganization, patterns, sudden changes, hierarchy. The emergence of complex systems is very fruitful approach to the theoretical reconstruction of the processes of space economy. It should be included in the discussion on evolutionary economics and geography. Recently, in both disciplines creative research is carried out on this subject matter.
Linguistic materials of uncertain syntactic status in a corpus of blog posts – This article proposes an analysis of some modalities of the interfrastic connection in the linguistic productions of bloggers. In particular, attention is focused on cases that present a structural interest as they fall into an intermediate space between autonomy and syntactic-semantic integration. More specifically, it focuses on cases of hypercoding and hypocoding of the the syntactic linking of clauses, as well as on cases of deviant coding.
The aim of this paper is to analyse various animal-specifi c complex lexical units together with patterns that can be held responsible for their underlying conceptual structure. Many examples of the data investigated in the paper seem to represent compounds as they are traditionally understood in the literature of the subject (see, among others, Bauer 2003; Katamba and Stonham 2006; Lieber and Štekauer 2009; Fàbregas and Scalise 2012; Bauer et al. 2013); however, others do not meet the basic criteria for compoundhood as postulated by, for example, Altakhaineh (2016). In my research I use the term animal-specifi c complex lexical units with reference to all animal-related composite expressions being the result of the working of metaphor-metonymy interaction.
The paper presents the meaning of complexity as a notion in psychology, and its influence on architectural theory in the 1960s, focusing on the notion of optimal complexity. A commentary is presented on the two texts („Network of straight lines” and „Limited complexity”) by professor architect Juliusz Żórawski from 1967, where he has introduced the term of limited complexity in relation to architecture, and where he criticizes excessively far reaching forecasts of future development. Żórawski’s concepts are parallel to those of R. Venturi at that time.
Most of the medieval Italian cities are civitas born of the ruins of the ancient Roman civilization. Their beauty ist the origin for deep esthetical experiences, to which Sławomir Gzell gave the name bellezza. There are a few characteristic features composing the "picturesqueness", painterliness and harmony of those cities, which lead the observer to strong emotions and constant, sensual exploration. The author contemplates the aspects creating the phenomrnon of beauty of Italian cities and towns - which are the metapfor of human desires and deepest cravings.
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of the development of economic space. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of economic space. This set includes among others: shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, selforganization and the development out of equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, pulsative course of development process, emergence of complex spatial systems, development code of the system of regions.
City parks play a very important role in an urbanized landscape. They are forms of specially designed green space which combine elements of horticulture with architecture, history and culture. The article presents historical urban parks and old residential-park complexes included in the boundaries of Poznań and currently existing in the wedge-ring system of the urban green space. The aim of the conducted research was to show their historical and current function as well as their general state of preservation and condition. The results are presented in the form of a Table where the historical significance of those objects is compared with their role today.
The town of Siemianowice Śląskie is where we can find a palace-and-park complex which nowadays serves as the Town Park. The complex used to be owned by the Henckel von Donnersmarck family; today it is open to everyone looking for either active or passive leisure. Apart from its historical value (the complex being the most significant monument of the town), the park is also of special importance to the environment. It can be seen as an enclave of greenery and a sanctuary for plants and animals. Moreover, together with the neighbouring recreation area and ecological sites, the park contributes to the symbolic “green lungs” of the town