The paper presents the results of analyzes of gases emitted during exposure to high temperature foundry molding sands, where binders are organic resins. As a research tool has been used special gas chromatograph designed to identify odorous compounds including the group of alkanes.
Organic binders applied in foundry plants based on synthetic resins, from the one side influence obtaining the required technological properties by the moulding sand and – in consequence – obtaining good quality castings, and on the other side are the source of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Together with synthetic resins their hardeners, which although added in very small amounts emit during their thermal decomposition substances negatively influencing the natural environment, are also used. Both, resins and hardeners only at the influence of high temperatures accompanying moulds pouring with liquid metal generate harmful volatile organic compounds including compounds from the BTEX group. Investigations of the temperature influence on the kind and amount of organic compounds formed during the thermal decomposition of selected binders and hardeners and their mixtures allow to determine temperature ranges the most favourable for emitting harmful substances as well as to compare their emission from the selected materials. The aim of this study was the determination the temperature influence on formation substances from the BTEX group, during thermal decomposition of the selected binder, its hardener and their mixture. The BTEX group emission constitutes one of the basic criteria in assessing the harmfulness of materials applied for moulding and core sands and it can undergo changes in dependence of the applied system resin-hardener. Investigations were carried out on the specially developed system for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in the temperature range: 5000 C – 13000 C, at the laboratory scale. The investigations subject was the furan resin, its hardener and hardened furan resin. The assessment of the emission degree of the BTEX group in dependence of the system subjected to the temperature influence was performed, within the studies. The temperature range, in which maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes were emitted from tested materials – was defined. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the BTEX group were carried out with using the gas chromatography technique coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS).
The vapour pressure of most explosives is very low. Therefore, the explosive trace detection is very difficult. To overcome the problem, concentration units can be applied. At the Institute of Optoelectronics MUT, an explosive vapour concentration and decomposition unit to operate with an optoelectronic sensor of nitrogen dioxide has been developed. This unit provides an adsorption of explosive vapours from the analysed air and then their thermal decomposition. The thermal decomposition is mainly a chemical reaction, which consists in breaking up compounds into two or more simple compounds or elements. During the heating process most explosive particles, based on nitro aromatics and alkyl nitrate, release NO2 molecules and other products of pyrolysis. In this paper, the most common methods for the NO2 detection were presented. Also, an application of the concentration and decomposition unit in the NO2 optoelectronic sensor has been discussed.
On the basis of hydrogen peroxide decomposition process occurring in the bioreactor with fixed-bed of commercial catalase the optimal feed temperature was determined. This feed temperature was obtained by maximizing the time-average substrate conversion under constant feed flow rate and temperature constraints. In calculations, convection-diffusion-reaction immobilized enzyme fixed-bed bioreactor described by a coupled mass and energy balances as well as general kinetic equation for rate of enzyme deactivation was taken into consideration. This model is based on kinetic, hydrodynamic and mass-transfer parameters estimated in earlier work. The simulation showed that in the biotransformation with thermal deactivation of catalase optimal feed temperature is only affected by kinetic parameters for enzyme deactivation and decreases with increasing value of activation energy for deactivation. When catalase undergoes parallel deactivation the optimal feed temperature is strongly dependent on hydrogen peroxide feed concentration, feed flow rate and diffusional resistances expressed by biocatalyst effectiveness factor. It has been shown that the more significant diffusional resistances and the higher hydrogen peroxide conversions, the higher the optimal feed temperature is expected.