It looks as if it was frozen lava, but it is a by-product of metal smelting. If left piled up, it may have a strong negative impact on the environment. But when reused in a smart way, it can actually bring many benefits.
This article contains information concerning of the analysis the possibility of defining refinery qualities of the slag based thermophysical and thermodynamical data. The paper presents a model of slag refining processes and a method of determining the reduction capability of slag solutions. Slag was analysed with the use of the DTA methods for the brass melting conductions. The study of computer program including the satisfactory number of data there are used in to the design a modern device rotating head used for gas-slag refining. It was achieved that the refining gas and fluxes were distributed ever by the rotating head. High effectiveness of the gas-slag refining processes was proved for the brass.
The post-processing slags containing about 0.8 wt.% of copper were subjected to the treatment of a complex reagent. The chemical composition of the complex reagent has been elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. The slags had an industrial origin and were delivered by the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace assisted by the arc furnace. An agglomeration of copper droplets suspended in the liquid slag, their coagulation, and deposition on the bottom of furnace were observed after the treatment this post-processing slag by the mentioned reagent. The treatment of the post-processing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the arc furnace equipped with some additional electrodes situated at the furnace bottom (additional, in comparison with the arc furnace usually applied in the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The behaviour of the copper droplets in the liquid slag within the competition between buoyancy force and gravity was studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Eventually, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the furnace bottom according to the requirements. The agglomeration and coagulation of the copper droplets were significantly improved by an optimized tilting of the upper electrodes and even by their rotation. Moreover, the settlement was substantially facilitated and improved by the employment of both upper and lower system of electrodes with the simultaneous substitution of the variable current by the direct current.
A special Slag-Prop Cu database has been developed to archive data from laboratory and industrial tests related to post-reduction slags. In order to enrich the data areas, it was decided to design a system for measuring the temperature of the liquid slag and its viscosity. Objectives of research work are to gather information on the properties of post-slags such as the temperature of liquid slag and its viscosity. The discussed issues are especially important in the foundry practice. Designed research stand and using of database applications can greatly facilitate the work of metallurgists, foundrymen, technologists and scientists. The viscosity measurement was developed and presented earlier. The author's analytical methodology was supplemented by a thyristor measuring system (described in the article). The system temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. Measurement of the voltage mV - using the Seebeck effect can be measured throughout the entire range of thermocouple resistance, up to 1300 °C. Direct temperature measurement ⁰C - measurement only below 1000 ⁰C. Additional measurement - the measurement can also be read from the pyrometer set above the bath. The temperature and the reading frequency depend on the device itself. The principle of measurement is that in a molten metal / slag crucible, we put a N-type thermocouple. The thermocouples are hung by means of a tripod above the crucible and placed in a crucible. The thermocouple is connected to a compensating line dedicated to this type of thermocouple. The cable is in turn connected to a special multimeter that has the ability to connect to a computer and upload results. Temperature measurement can be performed simultaneously in 3 ways to reduce the measurement error. The Sn-Pb alloy has been subjected to testing for proper operation of the device. In this foot should be observed the supercooling of the liquid, which initiates the crystallization process and in which latent heat begins to exude raising the temperature until the coagulation temperature is reached.