In this study, modification of the AZ91 magnesium alloy surface layer with a CO2 continuous wave operation laser has been taken on. The extent and character of structural changes generated in the surface layer of the material was being assessed on the basis of both macro- and microscopy investigations, and the EDX analysis. Considerable changes in the structure of the AZ91 alloy surface layer and the morphology of phases have been found. The remelting processing was accompanied by a strong refinement of the structure and a more uniform distribution of individual phases. The conducted investigations showed that the remelting zone dimensions are a result of the process parameters, and that they can be controlled by an appropriate combination of basic remelting parameters, i.e. the laser power, the distance from the sample surface, and the scanning rate. The investigations and the obtained results revealed the possibility of an effective modification of the AZ91 magnesium alloy surface layer in the process of remelting carried out with a CO2 laser beam.
What is the limit of improvement the structure obtained directly from the liquid state, with possible heat treatment (supersaturation and aging)? This question was posed by casting engineers who put arbitrary requirements on reducing the DAS (Dendrite Arm Spacing) length to less than a dozen microns. The results of tests related to modification of the surface microstructure of AlSi7Mg alloy casting treated by laser beam and the rapid remelting and solidification of the superficial casting zone, were presented in the paper. The local properties of the surface treated with a laser beam concerns only a thickness ranging from a fraction to a single mm. These local properties should be considered in the aspect of application on surfaces of non-machined castings. Then the excellent surface layer properties can be used. The tests were carried out on the surface of the casting, the surface layer obtained in contact with the metal mould, after the initial machining (several mm), was treated by the laser beam. It turned out that the refinement of the microstructure measured with the DAS value is not available in a different way, i.e. directly by casting. The experimental-simulation validation using the Calcosoft CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element) code was applied.
Secondary or multiple remelted alloys are common materials used in foundries. For secondary (recycled) Al-Si-Cu alloys, the major problem is the increased iron presence. Iron is the most common impurity and with presence of other elements in alloy creates the intermetallic compounds, which may negatively affect the structure. The paper deals with effect of multiple remelting on the microstructure of the AlS9iCu3 alloy with increased iron content to about 1.4 wt. %. The evaluation of the microstructure is focused on the morphology of iron-base intermetallic phases in caste state, after the heat treatment (T5) and after natural aging. The occurrence of the sludge phases was also observed. From the obtained results can be concluded that the multiple remelting leads to change of chemical composition, changes in the final microstructure and also increases sludge phases formation. The use of heat treatment T5 led to a positive change of microstructure, while the effect of natural aging is beneficial only to the 3rd remelting.
The paper summarises results of measurements of remelting area geometry, thermal efficiency and melting efficiency characterising the surface remelting process applied to castings of MAR-M-509 cobalt alloy. The remelting process was carried out with the use of GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) method in protective atmosphere of helium, at the electric current intensity in the range from 100 A to 300 A, and the electric arc scanning velocity vs in the range from 200 mm/min to 800 mm/min. The effect of current intensity and electric arc scanning velocity on geometrical parameters of remeltings, thermal efficiency, and melting efficiency characterising the remelting process has been determined.
This article focuses on the study of the influence of remelting and subsequent natural and artificial ageing on the structure of recycled AlSi9Cu3 alloy with increased iron content. The assessed changes in eutectic silicon and iron-based intermetallic phases were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The degradation of the eutectic silicon morphology due to remelting occurred only at the highest numbers of remelting. The effect of remelting the investigated alloy, which is accompanied by a gradual increase in wt. % Fe, began to manifest significantly through a change in the length of the ferric phases after the fourth remelting. As expected, the artificial ageing process has proven to be more effective than natural ageing. It has led to a change in the eutectic silicon morphology and has been beneficial in reducing the lengths of adverse ferric phases. The use of alloys with higher numbers of remelting, or with greater “contamination”, for the manufacture of shape-challenging castings is possible when using a suitable method of eliminating the negative factors of the remelting process. The results of our investigation show a suitable method of the above elimination the application of heat treatment T5 – via artificial ageing.
The paper deals with the problem of multiple remelting influence on AlSi6Cu4 alloy modified by antimony on chosen mechanical characteristics, microstructure and gas content. This foundry alloy is used mostly in automotive industry. Foundry Aluminum-Silicon alloys are also used in number of industrial weight sensitive applications because of their low weight and very good castability and good mechanical properties. Modifiers are usually added to molten aluminum-silicon alloys to refine the eutectic phase particle shape and improve the mechanical properties of the final cast products and Al-Si alloys cast properties.
Paper present a thermal analysis of laser heating and remelting of EN AC-48000 (EN AC-AlSi12CuNiMg) cast alloy used mainly for casting pistons of internal combustion engines. Laser optics were arranged such that the impingement spot size on the material was a circular with beam radius rb changes from 7 to 1500 m. The laser surface remelting was performed under argon flow. The resulting temperature distribution, cooling rate distribution, temperature gradients and the depth of remelting are related to the laser power density and scanning velocity. The formation of microstructure during solidification after laser surface remelting of tested alloy was explained. Laser treatment of alloy tests were perform by changing the three parameters: the power of the laser beam, radius and crystallization rate. The laser surface remelting needs the selection such selection of the parameters, which leads to a significant disintegration of the structure. This method is able to increase surface hardness, for example in layered castings used for pistons in automotive engines.
The paper presents results of a study on the effect of the flux density of heat carried away for the remelting area to substrate in the course of surface remelting with concentrated heat stream on values of structural parameters λ1D and λ2D of α(Al) phase dendrites in C355 alloy. The remeltings were made with the use of GTAW method, at arc current intensity I = 200 A and concentrated heat stream scanning speed vs = 200, 400, 600, and 800 mm/min. The used protective gas was argon supplied at rate of 20 l/min. It has been found that the increase of the rate of scanning with concentrated heat stream results in a change of the remelting-substrate separation surface shape consisting in reduction of the remelting width and depth. This increases the value of the flux density of heat transmitted from the remelting area to substrate which in turn acts in favor of reduction of structural parameters λ1D and λ2D characterizing α(Al) phase dendrites in C355 alloy.
The paper deals with influence of multiple remelting on AlSi9Cu3 alloy with higher iron content on chosen mechanical properties. Multiple remelting may in various ways influence mechanical, foundry properties, gas saturation, shrinkage cavity, fluidity etc. of alloy. Higher presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled) aluminium alloys. In Al-Si alloy the iron is the most common impurity and with presence of other elements in alloy creates the intermetallic compounds, which decreases mechanical properties. Iron in the used alloy was increased to about 1.4 wt. %, so that the influence of increased iron content can be investigated. In the paper, the effect of multiple remelting is evaluated with respect to the resulting mechanical properties in cast state, after the heat treatment (T5) and after natural aging. From the obtained results it can be concluded that the multiple remelting leads to change of chemical composition and affect the mechanical properties.
The densification behavior of H13 tool steel powder by dual speed laser scanning strategy have been characterized for selective laser melting process, one of powder bed fusion based metal 3d printing. Under limited given laser power, the laser re-melting increases the relative density and hardness of H13 tool steel with closing pores. The single melt-pool analysis shows that the pores are located on top area of melt pool when the scanning speed is over 400 mm/s while the low scanning speed of 200 mm/s generates pores beneath the melt pool in the form of keyhole mode with the high energy input from the laser. With the second laser scanning, the pores on top area of melt pools are efficiently closed with proper dual combination of scan speed. However pores located beneath the melt pools could not be removed by second laser scanning. When each layer of 3d printing are re-melted, the relative density and hardness are improved for most dual combination of scanning. Among the scan speed combination, the 600 mm/s by 400 mm/s leads to the highest relative density, 99.94 % with hardness of 53.5 HRC. This densification characterization with H13 tool steel laser re-melting can be efficiently applied for tool steel component manufacturing via metal 3d printing.
In this study, low-carbon cast steel was reinforced with TiC by SHS-B method, also known as combustion synthesis during casting method. The composite zone was then subjected to surface remelting by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) method. The remelting operation was realized manually, at 150 A current magnitude. Microstructure, phase composition and hardness of remelted zone were investigated. XRD results reveal that the phases of the composite zone in initial state consist of TiC and Feα. Surface remelting resulted in formation of thick layers containing TiC carbides, Feα and Feγ. Microstructural examination has shown strong refinement of titanium carbides in remelted zone and complete dissolution of primary titanium carbides synthetized during casting. The average diameter of carbides was below 2 μm. The structural changes are induced by fast cooling which affects crystallization rate. The hardness (HV30) of the remelted layer was in the range between 250 HV and 425 HV, and was lower than hardness in initial state.
The paper presents the possibility of the usage of the concfocal microscope for define the type of tribological wear present during the technical dry friction on the testing machine of the pin-on-disc T-01M. The pin was a remelted high-speed steel and the disc was made from sintered carbides. The surface layer of the high-speed steel was remelted with the electric arc with different parameters. The intensity of the electric arc current was changed, the scanning speed and the single, overlapping remeltings were used. On the basis of the 3D, 2D view of the surface friction of the pin (made from the remelted high-speed steel), disc (made from the sintered carbides) and the surface roughness profile run along the marked line, the presence of the abrasive wear can be defined with the description of the elementary wear processes due to the abrasive and/or adhesive wear.
In the article we were studing the impact of the remelting on transformations in Co-Cr-Mo prosthetics alloy. The TDA curves were analyzed, the microstructure was examined, the analysis of the chemical composition and hardness using the Brinell method was made. It was found that the obtained microstructure of the alloys that we studied do not differ significantly. In all four samples, microscopic images were similar to each other. The volume, size and distribution of the phases remain similar. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that all the samples fall within the compositions provided for the test alloy. Further to this the hardness of the samples, regardless of the number of remeltings did not show any significant fluctuations and remained within the error limit.After analyzing all the results, it can be concluded that the remeltings of the alloys should not have a significant impact on their properties. Secondarily melted alloys can be used for prosthetics works.
The work presents the results of the research and tests of the surface machining of the S355NL and X5CrNi18-10 steels with the concentraded stream of heat with the usage of the GTAW method. The surface layers of the tested steels were remelted with the electric arc using the current of the electric arc 50, 100, 150 and 200A.The machining was done in the atmosphere of argon with the constant speed of the welding head. A microscope examination was performed of the obtained structure and measurements of depth, width and hardness of the received surface layer were performed. Moreover the relation between the current of the electric arc and geometry of the remelted layers with their microhardness was examined.