The subject of the numerical investigation is an ellipsoidal head with a central (axis-symmetrical) nozzle. The nozzle is loaded by axial load force. The ellipsoidal head is under axial-symmetrical compression load. The numerical FEM model is elaborated. The calculation will provide the critical loads and equilibrium paths for the sample head.. The investigation will measure the influence of the diameter of the nozzle on the critical state of the ellipsoidal head.
The objective of this paper is to present a probabilistic method of analyzing the combinations of snow and wind loads using meteorological data and to determine their combination factors. Calculations are based on data measured at twelve Polish meteorological stations operated by the Institute for Meteorology and Water Management. Data provided are from the years 1966 - 2010. Five combinations of snow load and 10-minute mean wind velocity pressure have been considered. Gumbel probability distribution has been used to fit the empirical distributions of the data. As a result, the interdependence between wind velocity pressure and snow load on the ground for a return period of 50 years has been provided, and the values of the combination factors for snow loads and wind actions are proposed.
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a supportive and life-saving therapy, however, it can cause ventilator-induced lung injury as a common complication. Thus, recruitment manoeuvres (RM) are applied to open the collapsed alveoli to ensure sufficient alveolar surface area for gas exchange. In the light of the fact that positive pressure ventilation is currently the standard treat- ment for improving pulmonary function, extrathoracic negative pressure is considered as an alter- native form of respiratory support. The aim of this study was to estimate the proinflammatory and oxidative response during MV and lung injury as well as the response after RM. All studied parameters were assessed at the following time points: T1-spontaneous breathing, T2- MV, T3- lung injury, T4 –RM. During MV (T2) elastase, MPO, ALP release, nitrite and superoxide generation significantly increased, whereas in later measurements a decrease in these values was noted. The MDA plasma concentration significantly (p<0.05) increased at T2, reaching a level of 13.30±0.87 nmol/ml; at other time points the values obtained were similar to the baseline value of 9.94±0.94 nmol/ml, whereas a gradual decrease in SOD activity at time T2-T4 points in comparison with the baseline value was found. During the study both neutrophil activity and oxi- dative stress indicate exacerbated response after MV and lung injury by bronchoalveolar lavage; however, extrathoracic negative pressure system as the MR ameliorates damaging changes which could further lead to serious lung injury.
In the paper, the results of investigations on the properties of acoustic emission signals generated in a tested pressure vessel are presented. The investigations were performed by repeating several times the following procedure: an increase in pressure, maintaining a given pressure level, a further increase in pressure, and then maintaining the pressure at new determined level. During the tests the acoustic emission signals were recorded by the measuring system 8AE-PD with piezoelectric sensors D9241A. The used eight-channel measuring system 8AE-PD enables the monitoring, recording and then basic and advanced analysis of signals. The results of basic analysis carried out in domain of time and the results of advanced analysis carried out in the discrimination threshold domain of the recorded acoustic emission signals are presented in the paper. In the framework of the advanced analysis, results are described by the defined by the author descriptors with acronyms ADC, ADP and ADNC. Such description is based on identifying the properties of amplitude distributions of acoustic emission signals by assigning them the level of advancement. It is shown that for signals including continoues AE or single burst AE signals descriptions of such registered signals by means of ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors and by Upp and Urms descriptors provide identical ordering of registered acoustic emission signals. For complex signals, the description using ADC, ADP and ADNC descriptors based on the analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded signals gives the order of signals with more accurate connection with deformational processes being sources of acoustic emission signals.
Scientists are increasingly specializing in narrower fields, and communication is often difficult between physicists researching elementary particles and those studying semiconductors, not to mention between physicists and biologists or doctors. This makes interdisciplinary work difficult. And yet sometimes they succeed. One thread of work underway at the PAS Institute of High Pressure Physics offers a good example.
Final quality of casts produced in a die casting process represents a correlation of setting of technological parameters of die casting cycle, properties of alloy, construction of a die and structure of gating and of bleeding systems. Suitable structure of a gating system with an appertaining bleeding system of the die can significantly influence mechanical and structural properties of a cast. The submitted paper focuses on influence of position of outfall of an gate into the cast on its selected quality properties. Layout of the test casts in the die was designed to provide filling of a shaping cavity by the melt with diverse character of flowing. Setting of input technological parameters during experiment remained on a constant level. The only variable was the position of the gate. Homogeneity represented by porosity f and ultimate strength Rm were selected to be the assessed representative quality properties of the cast. The tests of the influence upon monitored parameters were realized in two stages. The test gating system was primarily subjected to numerical tests with the utilization of a simulation program NovaFlow&Solid. Consequently, the results were verified by the experimental tests carried out with the physical casts produced during operation. It was proved that diverse placement of the gate in relation to the cast influences the mode of the melt flowing through the shaping cavity which is reflected in the porosity of the casts. The experimental test proved correlation of porosity f of the cast with its ultimate strength Rm. At the end of the paper, the interaction dependencies between the gate position, the mode of filling the die cavity, porosity f and ultimate strength Rm.
In this work the design aspects of a piezoelectric-based resonance ceramic pressure sensor made using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology and designed for high-temperature applications is presented. The basic pressure-sensor structure consists of a circular, edge-clamped, deformable diaphragm that is bonded to a ring, which is part of the rigid ceramic structure. The resonance pressure sensor has an additional element – a piezoelectric actuator – for stimulating oscillation of the diaphragm in the resonance-frequency mode. The natural resonance frequency is dependent on the diaphragm construction (i.e., its materials and geometry) and on the actuator. This resonance frequency then changes due to the static deflection of the diaphragm caused by the applied pressure. The frequency shift is used as the output signal of the piezoelectric resonance pressure sensor and makes it possible to measure the static pressure. The characteristics of the pressure sensor also depend on the temperature, i.e., the temperature affects both the ceramic structure (its material and geometry) and the properties of the actuator. This work is focused on the ceramic structure, while the actuator will be investigated later.
Helical coil heat exchangers are widely used in a variety of industry applications such as refrigeration systems, process plants and heat recovery. In this study, the effect of Reynolds number and the operating temperature on heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop for laminar flow conditions was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a shell and tube heat exchanger with a copper coiled pipe (4 mm ID, length of 1.7 m and coil pitch of 7.5 mm) in the temperature range from 243 to 273 K. Air – propan-2-ol vapor mixture and coolant (methylsilicone oil) flowed inside and around the coil, respectively. The fluid flow in the shell-side was kept constant, while in the coil it was varied from 6.6 to 26.6 m/s (the Reynolds number below the critical value of 7600). Results showed that the helical pipe provided higher heat transfer performance than a straight pipe with the same dimensions. The convective coefficients were determined using theWilson method. The values for the coiled pipe were in the range of 3–40 W/m2 ·K. They increased with increasing the gas flow rate and decreasing the coolant temperature.
The present study aimed to determine the role of job components and individual parameters on the raised blood pressure among male workers of textile industry who were exposed to continuous high noise level. Information of all eligible subjects including demographic and individual characteristics, medical history and job characteristics were obtained by direct interview and referring to the medical records. All blood pressure measurements were done using mercury sphygmomanometer in the morning before work. The 8-hours equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level, the level of blood cholesterol and triglyceride, and noise annoyance was determined for each worker. As the result of weighted regression in path analysis (direct effect), only the work shift did not have a significant effect on blood pressure among the studied variables. It can be seen that variables including the level of triglyceride, cholesterol, and noise exposure have the most direct effects on blood pressure. The results of total effects showed that variables, including using the hearing protection device, age, work experience and visibility of sound source, did not have a significant effect on blood pressure. The results of this study indicate that occupational noise exposure alone and combined with other job components and individual parameters is associated with raised blood pressure. However, noise exposure was probably a stronger stressor for increased blood pressure.
In the extra-thick coal seams and multi-layered hard roofs, the longwall hydraulic support yielding, coal face spalling, strong deformations of goaf-side entry, and severe ground pressure dynamic events typically occur at the longwall top coal caving longwall faces. Based on the Key strata theory an overburden caving model is proposed here to predict the multilayered hard strata behaviour. The proposed model together with the measured stress changes in coal seam and underground observations in Tongxin coal mine provides a new idea to analyse stress changes in coal and help to minimise rock bursts in the multi-layered hard rock ground. Using the proposed primary Key and the sub-Key strata units the model predicts the formation and instability of the overlying strata that leads to abrupt dynamic changes to the surrounding rock stress. The data obtained from the vertical stress monitoring in the 38 m wide coal pillar located adjacent to the longwall face indicates that the Key strata layers have a significant influence on ground behaviour. Sudden dynamically driven unloading of strata was caused by the first caving of the sub-Key strata while reloading of the vertical stress occurred when the goaf overhang of the sub-Key strata failed. Based on this findings several measures were recommended to minimise the undesirable dynamic occurrences including pre-split of the hard Key strata by blasting and using the energy consumption yielding reinforcement to support the damage prone gate road areas. Use of the numerical modelling simulations was suggested to improve the key theory accuracy.
AISI 316L/TiB2/2p composites were manufactured by HP-HT using different pressures (5 and 7 GPa) and temperatures (900-1300°C), with constant reinforcing particle content 2 vol%. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated on the basis of hardness (HV0.3) and compression tests (20°C, 10−5 s−1). The results showed that the role of sintering pressure increased with increasing process temperature. At temperatures of 900°C and pressures of 5 and 7 GPa the difference in measured values of compressive strength was 1-2%, while at 1300°C they reached 20%. At constant pressure of 5 GPa, a change in hardness and compressive strength of 40% were obtained with a temperature change of 900 to 1300°C. Changes in mechanical properties in the composite occurred without substantial changes in density, microstructure, reinforcement phase distribution, and phase composition in the matrix.
Influenced by the dynamic pressure of the front abutment pressure and the lateral abutment pressure, large deformation of surrounding rock occurs advancing working face in the entry heading adjacent to the active longwall mining face. Based on the cause analysis of entry large deformation, a new technology was put forward to solve the problem, and the designing method of drilling hole parameters for directional hydraulic fracturing was formed. Holes are drilled in the entry or in the high drainage entry to a certain rock layer over the adjacent working face, hydraulic cutting or slotting at the bottom of a borehole were also applied in advance to guide the hydraulic fractures extend in expected direction, through which the hard roof above the coal pillar can be cut off directionally. As a result, the stress concentration around the entry was transferred, and the entry was located in a destressing area. The field test at Majialiang coal mine indicates that the propagation length of cracks in single borehole is more than 15 m. After hydraulic fracturing, the large deformation range of the entry is reduced by 45 m, the average floor heave is reduced by 70%, and the average convergence of the entry’s two sides is reduced by 65%. Directional hydraulic fracturing has a better performance to control the large deformation of the dynamic pressure of the entry heading adjacent to the advancing coal face. Besides, it can improve the performance of the safety production.
I n t r o d u c t i o n: Stress is an ubiquitous phenomenon in the modern world and one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Th e aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of various acute stress stimuli on autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, assessed on the basis of heart rate (HRV) and blood pressure (BPV) variability analysis. Ma t e r i a l s a n d M e t h o d s: The study included 15 healthy volunteers: 9 women, 6 men aged 20– 30 years (23.3 ± 1.8). ANS activity was assessed by HRV and BPV measurement using Task Force Monitor 3040 (CNSystems, Austria). ECG registration and Blood Pressure (BP) measurement was done 10 minutes at rest, 10 minutes aft er the stress stimulus (sound signal, acoustic startle, frequency 1100 Hz, duration 0.5 sec, at the intensity 95 dB) and 10 minutes aft er the cold pressor test. The cold pressor test (CPT) was done by placing the person’s hand by wrist in ice water (0–4°C) for 120 s. R e s u l t s: Every kind of stress stimulation (acoustic startle; the CPT) caused changes of HRV indicator values. The time domain HRV analysis parameters (pNN50, RMSSD) decreased aft er acoustic stress and the CPT, but were signifi cantly lower after the CPT. In frequency domain HRV analysis, significant differences were observed only aft er the CPT: (LF-RRI 921.23 ms2 vs. 700.09 ms2; p = 0.009 and HF-RRI 820.75 ms2 vs. 659.52 ms2; p = 0.002). The decrease of LF-RRI and HF-RRI value aft er the CPT was significantly higher than after the acoustic startle (LF-RRI 34% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.022; HF-RRI 19.7% vs. 7% ms2, p = 0.011). The decreased value of the LF and HF components of HRV analysis are indicative of sympathetic activation. Nonlinear analysis of HRV indicated a significant decrease in the Poincare plot SD1 (p = 0.039) and an increase of DFAα2 (p = 0.001) in response to the CPT stress stimulation. Th e systolic BPV parameter LF/HF-sBP increased signifi cantly aft er the CPT (2.84 vs. 3.31; p = 0.019) and was higher than aft er the acoustic startle (3.31 vs. 3.06; p = 0.035). Signifi cantly higher values of diastolic BP (67.17 ± 8.10 vs. 69.65 ± 9.94 mmHg, p = 0.038) and median BP (83.39 ± 8.65 vs. 85.30 ± 10.20 mmHg, p = 0.039) were observed in the CPT group than in the acoustic startle group. C on c l u s i o n s: Th e Cold Pressor Test has a greater stimulatory eff ect on the sympathetic autonomic system in comparison to the unexpected acoustic startle stress. Regardless of whether the stimulation originates from the central nervous system (acoustic startle) or the peripheral nervous system (CPT), the final response is demonstrated by an increase in the low frequency components of blood pressure variability and a decrease in the low and high frequency components of heart rate variability.
The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.
Experimental investigation of heat transfer during pool boiling of two nanofluids, i.e. water-Al2O3 and water-Cu has been carried out. Nanoparticles were tested at the concentration of 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1% by weight. The horizontal smooth stainless steel tubes having 10 mm OD and 0.6 mm wall thickness formed the test heater. The experiments have been performed to establish the influence of nanofluids concentration on heat transfer characteristics during boiling at different absolute operating pressure values, i.e. 200 kPa, ca. 100 kPa (atmospheric pressure) and 10 kPa. It was established that independent of nanoparticle materials (Al2O3 and Cu) and their concentration, an increase of operating pressure enhances heat transfer. Generally, independent of operating pressure, sub- and atmospheric pressure, and overpressure, an increase of nanoparticle concentration caused heat transfer augmentation.
Investigations of refrigerant condensation in pipe minichannels are very challenging and complicated issue. Due to the multitude of influences very important is mathematical and computer modeling. Its allows for performing calculations for many different refrigerants under different ﬂow conditions. A large number of experimental results published in the literature allows for experimental verification of correctness of the models. In this work is presented a mathematical model for calculation of ﬂow resistance during condensation of refrigerants in the pipe minichannel. The model was developed in environment based on conservation equations. The results of calculations were verified by authors own experimental investigations results.
The paper presents the method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10 vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting and the measurement results concerning the castability of the obtained composite. Composite castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. There were found the regression equations describing the change of castability of the examined composite as a function of pressure die casting process parameters. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.
The paper analyzes the changing public-private dynamics in higher education in Poland in 1990-2016 and beyond, focusing on the processes of internal and external de-privatization of the system. De-privatization of higher education – viewed also as its republicization – is caused by declining demographics and may lead to the demise of the largely demand-absorbing private higher education. Poland is shown as moving against the two powerful global trends related to privatization: private sector growth and increasing reliance on cost-sharing. Data related to funding and provision in 1990-2005 (expansion) and 2006 and beyond (contraction) are analyzed in detail, and policy implications of ongoing and expected changes are discussed.
The condition monitoring techniques like acoustic emission, vibration analysis, and infrared thermography, used for the failure diagnosis of bearings, require longer processing time, as they have to perform acoustical measurement followed by signal processing and further analysis using special software. However, for any bearing, its period of usage can be easily determined within an hour, by measuring the bearing sound, using sound level meter (SLM). In this paper the acoustical analysis of the spindle bearing of a radial drilling machine was performed using SLM, by measuring the sound pressure level of the bearing in decibels, for different frequencies, while muting all the other noises. Then using an experimental set up, two database readings were taken, one for new bearing and the other for completely damaged bearing, both are SKF6207, which itself is the spindle bearing. From these three sets of sound pressure level readings, the period of usage of the spindle bearing, was calculated using an interpolation equation, by substituting the life of the bearing from the manufacturer’s catalogue. Therefore, for any machine with a SKF6207 bearing, its usage time can be estimated using the database readings and one measurement on that machine, all with the same speed.
The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid in small gaps hydraulic devices and devices based on the hop boundary changes in viscosity. For the distribution model adopted dynamic viscosity was integrate the equations of fluid motion, whereby expressions are obtained for the velocity of the liquid height of the gap. The expressions for calculation of the fall capacity flow section are determined. Examples of the calculation of distributions velocity and falling bandwidth to a narrow gap are given.The estimation of the limits of applicability of classical approach to the calculation of viscous flow in micro gap is executed.
A high pressure resonator transducer (0 to 100 MPa) devised by the author has been described. The elastic element of the converter consists of a cylinder with an offset arranged axis hole. Quartz resonators were used for the measurement of deformations of the pipe. Based upon the results of the transducer testing, a new algorithmic method for the minimizalizsation of the temperature error, that eliminates the need for a temperature gauge has been worked out.
A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.
In this study, music teachers' exposure to sound was tested by measuring the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (SPL), the A-weighted maximum SPL and the C-weighted peak SPL. Measurements were taken prior to and after acoustic treatment in four rooms during classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and percussion instruments. Results showed that acoustic treatment affects the exposure of music teachers to sound. Daily noise exposure levels (LEX, 8 h) for all teachers exceeded a limit of 85 dB while teaching music lessons prior to room treatment. It was found that the LEX, 8 h values ranged from 85.8 to 91.6 dB. The highest A-weighted maximum SPL and C-weighted peak SPL that music teachers were exposed to were observed with percussion instruments (LAmax = 110.4 dB and LCpeak = 138.0 dB). After the treatments, daily noise exposure level decreased by an average of 5.8, 3.2, 3.0, 4.2 and 4.5 dB, respectively, for the classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and drums, and did not exceed 85 dB in any case.
Deep excavation walls can be analyzed and calculated by using classical methods (currently rarely in use due to their many simplifications) or numerical methods. Among the numerical methods we can distinguish a simplified approach, in which the interaction between soil and a wall structure is modelled by a system of elasto-plastic supports, and the finite-element method (FEM) in which the soil is modelled with mesh of elements. It is a common view that if we want to analyze only wall constructions, the first, simplified method of calculation is sufficient. The second method, FEM, is required if we want to further analyze the stress and strain states in the soil and the influence of the excavation on the surrounding area. However, as it is demonstrated in the paper, important differences may appear in the calculation results of both methods. Thus, the safety design of a deep excavation structure depends very much on the choice of calculating method.