The surfacing technologies are used for constitution of protection layer against wear and is destined for obtaining coating with high hardness. Among many weldings methods currently used to obtain the hard surface layer one of the most effective way of hardfacing is using flux cored arc welding. This additional material gives more possibilities to make expected hard surface layer. Chemical composition, property and economic factors obtained in flux cored wire are much richer in comparison to these obtained with other additional materials. This is the reason why flux cored wires give possibilities of application this kind of material for improving surface in different sectors of industry. In the present paper the imperfection in the layers was used for hardfacing process in different situations to show the possible application in the surface layer. The work presents studies of imperfection of the welds, contains the picture of microstructures, macrostructures and shows the results of checking by visual and penetrant testing methods.
The welding technologies are widely used for design of protection layer against wear and corrosion. Hardfacing, which is destined for obtaining coatings with high hardness, takes special place in these technologies. One of the most effective way of hardfacing is using self shielded flux cored arc welding (FCAW-S). Chemical composition obtained in flux cored wire is much more rich in comparison to this obtained in solid wire. The filling in flux cored wires can be enriched for example with the mixture of hard particles or phases with specified ratio, which is not possible for solid wires. This is the reason why flux cored wires give various possibilities of application of this kind of filler material for improving surface in mining industry, processing of minerals, energetic etc. In the present paper the high chromium and niobium flux cored wire was used for hardfacing process with similar heat input. The work presents studies of microstructures of obtained coatings and hardness and geometric properties of them. The structural studies were made with using optical microscopy and X- ray diffraction that allowed for identification of carbides and other phases obtained in the structures of deposited materials. Investigated samples exhibit differences in coating structures made with the same heat input 4,08 kJ/mm. There are differences in size, shape and distribution of primary and eutectic carbides in structure. These differences cause significant changes in hardness of investigated coatings.
The paper presents the capabilities of welding techniques to creating properties of wear resistant high chromium cast iron alloy. The use of the right kind of welding sequence allows you to change the structure and properties of the obtained welds. Tests were conducted for one type of additive material in the form of self shielded core wire. In order to determine the effect of the type of welding sequence on the properties of welds performed welding using string bead and weave bead. The resulting weld was tested on hardness and research structure in an optical microscope. In the following studies have been made erosive tests wear of made hardfacing. String beads gave structure rich in carbides and harder about 270 HV of the weld with weave bead. Also, wear resistance was nearly twice as better for welds made with string beads. In the experiment a decisive role in the resistance to wear plays a high hardness of the deposit and the presence of carbides in its structure. Changes in the basic parameters of the deposition process allows for the formation of structure and properties of hardfacing welds in a wide range.
Materials based on cast irons are often used for protection against wear. One of the methods of creating protective surface with cast iron structures is hardfacing. The application of hardfacing with self shielded flux cored wire with high carbon content is one of the economical ways often used to protect machinery parts exposed to both abrasion and erosion. The wear resistance of hardfacings depends on their chemical composition, structure obtained after hardfacing, parameters of depositing process and specific conditions of wear. As the base material in the investigation the steel grade S235JR was used. The wear behavior mechanism of hardfacings made with one type of self shielded flux cored wire and different process parameters were evaluated in this paper. Structures obtained in deposition process were different in hardness, amount of carbides and resistance to wear with two investigated impingement angles. The erosion tests showed that impingement angle 30° gives lower erosion rate than angle 60°.
Hot Isostatic Pressing elaboration of Norem02, an austenitic-ferritic hypereutectoid stainless steel, leads to the formation of an austenitic matrix with a mixture of acicular M7C3 and globular M23C6 carbides. The sintering tests, carried out by using an AISI 304L container, showed that the final microstructure and the carbides’ distribution of the HIPed Norem02 are strongly influenced by the process parameters (heating and cooling rate, sintering time, holding temperature and pressure) and by the particles’ size, microstructure and phase distribution of the initial powder. The morphological, crystallographic and chemical analysis of the sintered samples were completed by comprehension of the diffusion phenomena at the Norem02/304L interface, enabling the establishment of a correlation between elaboration process and final microstructure.