The basis for a mineral deposit delimitation is a qualitative and quantitative assessment of deposit parameters, qualifying a deposit as an economically valuable object. A conventional approach to the mineral deposit recognition and a deposit detailed parameters qualification in the initial stages of development work in the KGHM were presented in the paper. The goals of such recognition were defined, which through a gradual detailed expansion, resulting from the information inflow, allows for the construction of a more complete decision-making model. The description of the deposit parameters proposed in the article in the context of fuzzy logic, enables a presentation of imprecise statements and data, which may be a complement to a traditional description. Selected non-adjustable and adjustable s-norm and t-norm operators were demonstrated. Operators effects were tested for selected ore quality parameters (copper content and deposit thickness) by constructing adequate membership functions. In a practical application, the use of chosen fuzzy logic operators is proposed for the assessment of the qualitative parameters of copper-silver ore in the exploitation blocks for one of the mines belonging to KGHM Polish Copper S.A. The considerations have been extended by including the possibility of using compensation operators.
The operational mineral deposit reconnaissance tends to evaluate its parameters to conduct safe and profitable production. Particular deposit parameters, important from the point of mineral deposit management, are estimated on the basis of observations carried out by mining geological surveys. These observations usually involve sampling, drilling, laboratory analyses and others. The use of fuzzy description to assess the parameters of the mineral deposit was proposed in the paper. In the fuzzy characteristics, an imprecise descriptive description appeared in place of a particular numerical quantity. This approach was used to description of the ore deposit features (metal content, volume, and metal yield) by assigning them specific characteristic functions, whose distributions were based on basic statistical quantities. Characteristic functions can be used to prepare operational strategies for any configuration of required deposit parameters resulting from the production management needs. For this purpose, selected logical operators of fuzzy sets were used. In the next approach to fuzzy modeling, an opportunity to characterize the deposit in a subjective approach was indicated, where the assessment of the deposit parameters is based on rough, in some way, discretionary observation and evaluation. Such model construction enabled the overall assessment of the deposit from the point of view of any parameters. Through the implementation of appropriate inference rules, adequate fuzzy control planes were obtained, which may also be useful in the context of operational mine strategy planning.
The quality of the squeeze castings is significantly affected by secondary dendrite arm spacing, which is influenced by squeeze cast input parameters. The relationships of secondary dendrite arm spacing with the input parameters, namely time delay, pressure duration, squeeze pressure, pouring and die temperatures are complex in nature. The present research work focuses on the development of input-output relationships using fuzzy logic approach. In fuzzy logic approach, squeeze cast process variables are expressed as a function of input parameters and secondary dendrite arm spacing is expressed as an output parameter. It is important to note that two fuzzy logic based approaches have been developed for the said problem. The first approach deals with the manually constructed mamdani based fuzzy system and the second approach deals with automatic evolution of the Takagi and Sugeno’s fuzzy system. It is important to note that the performance of the developed models is tested for both linear and non-linear type membership functions. In addition the developed models were compared with the ten test cases which are different from those of training data. The developed fuzzy systems eliminates the need of a number of trials in selection of most influential squeeze cast process parameters. This will reduce time and cost of trial experimentations. The results showed that, all the developed models can be effectively used for making prediction. Further, the present research work will help foundrymen to select parameters in squeeze casting to obtain the desired quality casting without much of time and resource consuming.
The study presents the results of research aimed at the construction of a model of the relationship between the physical properties of metal and the types of toughening treatment and modifiers used in the modification of BA1044 alloy. Samples of melts were subjected to four variants of the heat treatment and to five types of modification. Studies of the samples consisted in measurements of five physical parameters. Consequently, it was necessary to seek a relationship between the nine input parameters and five output parameters. With this number of the variables and a limited number of samples, searching for the relationships by way of statistical methods was obviously impossible, so it was decided to create an approximate model through the use of fuzzy logic. This study describes the process of creating a model and presents the results of some simulation experiments that confirm the validity of the correct approach.
Solar energy is widely available in nature and electricity can be easily extracted using solar PV cells. A fuel cell being reliable and environment friendly becomes a good choice for the backup so as to compensate for continuously varying solar irradiation. This paper presents simple control schemes for power management of the DC microgrid consisting of PV modules and fuel cell as energy sources and a hydrogen electrolyzer system for storing the excess power generated. The supercapacitor bank is used as a short term energy storage device for providing the energy buffer whenever sudden fluctuations occur in the input power and the load demand. A new power control strategy is developed for a hydrogen storage system. The performance of the system is assessed with and without the supercapacitor bank and the results are compared. A comparative study of the voltage regulation of the microgrid is presented with the controller of the supercapacitor bank, realized using a traditional PI controller and an intelligent fuzzy logic controller.
A solar photovoltaic (PV) system has been emerging out as one of the greatest potential renewable energy sources and is contributing significantly in the energy sector. The PV system depends upon the solar irradiation and any changes in the incoming solar irradiation will affect badly on the output of the PV system. The solar irradiation is location specific and also the atmospheric conditions in the surroundings of the PV system contribute significantly to its performance. This paper presents the cumulative assessment of the four MPPT techniques during the partial shading conditions (PSCs) for different configurations of the PV array. The partial shading configurations like series-parallel, bridge link, total cross tied and honeycomb structure for an 8#2;4 PV array has been simulated to compare the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques. The MPPT techniques like perturb and observe, incremental conductance, extremum seeking control and a fuzzy logic controller were implemented for different shading patterns. The results related to the maximum power tracked, tracking efficiency of each of the MPPT techniques were presented in order to assess the best MPPT technique and the best configuration of the PV array for yielding the maximum power during the PSCs.
This paper presents methods for optimal test frequencies search with the use of heuristic approaches. It includes a short summary of the analogue circuits fault diagnosis and brief introductions to the soft computing techniques like evolutionary computation and the fuzzy set theory. The reduction of both, test time and signal complexity are the main goals of developed methods. At the before test stage, a heuristic engine is applied for the principal frequency search. The methods produce a frequency set which can be used in the SBT diagnosis procedure. At the after test stage, only a few frequencies can be assembled instead of full amplitude response characteristic. There are ambiguity sets provided to avoid a fault tolerance masking effect.