Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF) is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.
The article summarizes the theoretical knowledge from the field of brazing of graphitic cast iron, especially by means of conventional flame brazing using a filler metal based on CuZn (CuZn40SnSi – brass alloy). The experimental part of the thesis presents the results of performance assessment of brazed joints on other than CuZn basis using silicone (CuSi3Mn1) or aluminium bronze (CuAl10Fe). TIG electrical arc was used as a source of heat to melt these filler materials. The results show satisfactory brazed joints with a CuAl10Fe filler metal, while pre-heating is not necessary, which favours this method greatly while repairing sizeable castings. The technological procedure recommends the use of AC current with an increased frequency and a modified balance between positive and negative electric arc polarity to focus the heat on a filler metal without melting the base material. The suitability of the joint is evaluated on the basis of visual inspection, mechanic and metallographic testing.
In this study, solidification/stabilization (S/S) of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) which is generated during the production of steel from scrap metals and classified as hazardous waste were investigated by using different ratios of cement and low grade MgO (LG MgO) as binding agents. Type I PC 42.5 R portland cement and LG MgO which contains 70–80% MgO were used. S/S blocks that contain different ratios of binding agents which have 1/0.5 – 1/1 – 1/2 – 1/3 – 1/4 – 1/5 cement/LG MgO ratio and S/S blocks which contain only cement and no LG MgO agents were prepared. These blocks, which contain 3 different waste ratios according to weight, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively, were produced and exposed to 28-day water purification. At the end of the purification process, S/S blocks were extracted using TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) tests in order to determine the leaching behavior of Zn, Pb, and Cd in S/S blocks. By the end of this study, it was concluded that the recovery of EAFD is possible and applicable by immobilization. The findings of the study concluded that environmental performances or structural properties of blocks contain 30% waste by weight are suitable. This method is a proper one for recovering and treatment of EAFD with mixture of cement and LG MgO.
Zinc is present in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) mainly in two basic minerals, namely as franklinite ZnFe2O4 and/or zincite ZnO. While zincite is relatively reactive and easily treatable, franklinite is considerably refractory, which causes problems during EAFD processing. In this work EAFD containing 18.53% Zn was leached in water solution of ammonium carbonate. This leaching solution selectively leaches zincite, while franklinite is refractory and stable against leaching in this case. The temperature dependence of zinc leaching from EAFD was studied and the activation energy EA was determined by two methods: 1.) classically based on zinc chemical analyses from the leaching solution and 2.) by using of X-Ray diffraction qualitative phase analyses of leaching residues. The determined values of activation energies 37.41 and 38.55 kJmol–1 match perfectly, which show the excellent possibility of using X-Ray diffraction toward the study of leaching kinetics at properly chosen experimental conditions. The important result is the determination of the amount zincite and franklinite in EAFD, which is not possible by using of classical chemical methods.
The paper presents the possibility of the usage of the concfocal microscope for define the type of tribological wear present during the technical dry friction on the testing machine of the pin-on-disc T-01M. The pin was a remelted high-speed steel and the disc was made from sintered carbides. The surface layer of the high-speed steel was remelted with the electric arc with different parameters. The intensity of the electric arc current was changed, the scanning speed and the single, overlapping remeltings were used. On the basis of the 3D, 2D view of the surface friction of the pin (made from the remelted high-speed steel), disc (made from the sintered carbides) and the surface roughness profile run along the marked line, the presence of the abrasive wear can be defined with the description of the elementary wear processes due to the abrasive and/or adhesive wear.
The paper discusses problems arising in attempts to accurately represent dynamic processes of an electric arc by means of simple mathematical models. It describes the properties of the universal Pentegov model, employing any shape of static voltagecurrent characteristics of an arc. Next, it presents spectral and integral measuring methods for determining arc parameters in the Mayr, Cassie and Pentegov models of the electric arc with a forced sinusoid current circuit, with the raising static characteristics of hyperbolic-flat and hyperbolic-linear shape. The influence is discussed of the random power supply disturbances on errors of determining the mathematical model parameters.
In this paper the electric arc fault in the high voltage winding turn of the power autotransformer has been investigated. 3D magnetic field distributions in the leakage domain and electrodynamic forces acting on high voltage winding have been calculated. Finite Element Method was used for the magnetic flux density simulation. The elctrodynamic force value under the fault exceed significantly the nominal mechanical stresses of the winding.
The work presents the results of the research and tests of the surface machining of the S355NL and X5CrNi18-10 steels with the concentraded stream of heat with the usage of the GTAW method. The surface layers of the tested steels were remelted with the electric arc using the current of the electric arc 50, 100, 150 and 200A.The machining was done in the atmosphere of argon with the constant speed of the welding head. A microscope examination was performed of the obtained structure and measurements of depth, width and hardness of the received surface layer were performed. Moreover the relation between the current of the electric arc and geometry of the remelted layers with their microhardness was examined.
The aim of the current study was to examine the structure of an alloy treated at various temperatures up to 2,000–2,100 °C. Among research techniques for studying alloy structure there were the electron and optical microstructure, X-ray structure, and spectral analysis, and for studying the developed furnace geometric parameters the authors employed mathematical modeling method. The research was performed using aluminum smelting gas-fired furnaces and electric arc furnaces. The objects of the study were aluminum alloys of the brand AK7p and AK6, as well as hydrogen and aluminum oxide in the melt. For determining the hydrogen content in the aluminum alloy, the vacuum extraction method was selected. Authors have established that treatment of molten aluminum alloy in contact with carbon melt at high temperatures of 2,000–2,100 °C has resulted in facilitating reduction of hydrogen and aluminum oxide content in the melt by 40-43% and 50-58%, respectively, which is important because hydrogen and aluminum oxide adversely affect the structure and properties of the alloy. Such treatment contributes to the formation of the extremely fine-grained microstructure of aluminum alloy.
Higher active power of a submerged arc furnace is commonly believed to increase its capacity in the process of ferrosilicon smelting. This is a true statement but only to a limited extent. For a given electrode diameter d, there is a certain limit value of the submerged arc furnace active power. When this value is exceeded, the furnace capacity in the process of ferrosilicon smelting does not increase but the energy loss is higher and the technical and economic indicators become worse. Maximum output regarding the reaction zone volumes is one of parameters that characterize similarities of furnaces with various geometrical parameters. It is proportional to d3 and does not depend on the furnace size. The results of statistical analysis of the ferrosilicon smelting process in the 20 MVA furnace have been presented. In addition to basic electrical parameters, such as active power and electrical load of the electrodes, factors contributing to higher resistance of the furnace bath and resulting lower reactive power Px demonstrate the most significant effect on the electrothermal process of ferrosilicon smelting. These parameters reflect metallurgical conditions of ferrosilicon smelting, such as the reducer fraction, position of the electrodes and temperature conditions of the reaction zones.