This paper deals with computer modelling of the retention of a synthetic diamond particle in a metallic matrix produced by powder metallurgy. The analyzed sintered powders can be used as matrices for diamond impregnated tools. First, the behaviour of sintered cobalt powder was analyzed. The model of a diamond particle embedded in a metallic matrix was created using Abaqus software. The preliminary analysis was performed to determine the mechanical parameters that are independent of the shape of the crystal. The calculation results were compared with the experimental data. Next, sintered specimens obtained from two commercially available powder mixtures were studied. The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of the mechanical and thermal parameters of the matrix materials on their retentive properties. The analysis indicated the mechanical parameters that are responsible for the retention of diamond particles in a matrix. These mechanical variables have been: the elastic energy of particle, the elastic energy of matrix and the radius of plastic zone around particle.
This paper discusses the mechanical properties of a material fabricated from commercially available metal powder mixtures designed for use as a metal matrix of diamond impregnated composites. The mixtures with the catalogue numbers CSA and CSA800 provided by a Chinese producer are suitable for experimental laboratory testing. The specimens were fabricated in a graphite mould using hot pressing. The material was tested for density, porosity, hardness, and tensile strength under static loading. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the microstructure and cleavage fracture of broken specimens. It was essential to determine how the chemical composition and the fabrication process affected the microstructure and properties of the material. The properties of the sinters were compared with those of hot pressed specimens fabricated from sub-micron size cobalt powder (Cobalt SMS). Although the as-consolidated material is inferior to cobalt, it displays a favourable combination of hardness, yield strength and ductility, and seems to have a great potential for moderate and general purpose applications.
Abstract A conductive boron-doped diamond (BDD) grown on a fused silica/quartz has been investigated. Diamond thin films were deposited by the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PECVD). The main parameters of the BDD synthesis, i.e. the methane admixture and the substrate temperature were investigated in detail. Preliminary studies of optical properties were performed to qualify an optimal CVD synthesis and film parameters for optical sensing applications. The SEM micro-images showed the homogenous, continuous and polycrystalline surface morphology; the mean grain size was within the range of 100-250 nm. The fabricated conductive boron-doped diamond thin films displayed the resistivity below 500 mOhm cm-1 and the transmittance over 50% in the VIS-NIR wavelength range. The studies of optical constants were performed using the spectroscopic ellipsometry for the wavelength range between 260 and 820 nm. A detailed error analysis of the ellipsometric system and optical modelling estimation has been provided. The refractive index values at the 550 nm wavelength were high and varied between 2.24 and 2.35 depending on the percentage content of methane and the temperature of deposition.
In situ monitoring of the thickness of thin diamond films during technological processes is important because it allows better control of deposition time and deeper understanding of deposition kinetics. One of the widely used techniques is laser reflectance interferometry (LRI) which enables non-contact measurement during CVD deposition. The authors have built a novel LRI system with a 405 nm laser diode which achieves better resolution compared to the systems based on He-Ne lasers, as reported so far. The system was used for in situ monitoring of thin, microcrystalline diamond films deposited on silicon substrate in PA-CVD processes. The thickness of each film was measured by stylus profilometry and spectral reflectance analysis as a reference. The system setup and interferometric signal processing are also presented for evaluating the system parameters, i.e. measurement uncertainty, resolution and the range of measurable film thickness.
This article discusses results of an analysis of mechanical properties of a sintered material obtained from a mixture of elemental iron, copper and nickel powders ball milled for 60 hours. The powder consolidation was performed by hot pressing in a graphite mould. The hot pressing was carried out for 3 minutes at 900 °C and under a pressure of 35 MPa. The sintered specimens were tested for density, porosity, hardness and tensile strength. Their microstructures and fracture surfaces were also examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The study was conducted in order to determine the suitability of the sintered material for the manufacture of metal-bonded diamond tools. It was important to assess the effects of chemical composition and microstructure of the sintered material on its mechanical properties, which were compared with those of conventional metal bond material produced from a hot-pressed SMS grade cobalt powder. Although the studied material shows slightly lower strength and ductility as compared with cobalt, its hardness and offset yield strength are sufficiently high to meet the criteria for less demanding applications.
This paper deals with numerical and analytical modelling of a diamond or silicon particle embedded in a metallic matrix. The numerical model of an elastic particle in a metallic matrix was created using the Abaqus software. Truncated octahedron-shaped and spherical-shaped diamond particles were considered. The numerical analysis involved determining the effect of temperature on the elastic and plastic parameters of the matrix material. The analytical model was developed for a spherical particle in a metallic matrix. The comparison of the numerical results with the analytical data indicates that the mechanical parameters responsible for the retention of diamond particles in a metal matrix are: the elastic energy of the particle, the elastic energy of the matrix and the radius of the plastic zone around the particle. An Al-based alloy containing 5% of Si and 2% of Cu was selected to study the mechanical behaviour of silicon precipitates embedded in the aluminium matrix. The model proposed to describe an elastic particle in a metallic matrix can be used to analyze other materials with inclusions or precipitates.
A high-temperature piezo-resistive nano-crystalline diamond strain sensor and wireless powering are presented in this paper. High-temperature sensors and electronic devices are required in harsh environments where the use of conventional electronic circuits is impractical or impossible. Piezo-resistive sensors based on nano-crystalline diamond layers were successfully designed, fabricated and tested. The fabricated sensors are able to operate at temperatures of up to 250°C with a reasonable sensitivity. The basic principles and applicability of wireless powering using the near magnetic field are also presented. The system is intended mainly for circuits demanding energy consumption, such as resistive sensors or devices that consist of discrete components. The paper is focused on the practical aspect and implementation of the wireless powering. The presented equations enable to fit the frequency to the optimal range and to maximize the energy and voltage transfer with respect to the coils’ properties, expected load and given geometry. The developed system uses both high-temperature active devices based on CMOS-SOI technology and strain sensors which can be wirelessly powered from a distance of up to several centimetres with the power consumption reaching hundreds of milliwatts at 200°C. The theoretical calculations are based on the general circuit theory and were performed in the software package Maple. The results were simulated in the Spice software and verified on a real sample of the measuring probe.
Modern production technology requires new ways of surface examination and a special kind of surface profile parameters. Industrial quality inspection needs to be fast, reliable and inexpensive. In this paper it is shown how stochastic surface examination and its proper parameters could be a solution for many industrial problems not necessarily related with smoothing out a manufactured surface. Burnishing is a modern technology widely used in aircraft and automotive industries to the products as well as to process tools. It gives to the machined surface high smoothness, and good fatigue and wear resistance. Every burnished material behaves in a different manner. Process conditions strongly influence the final properties of any specific product. Optimum burnishing conditions should be preserved for any manufactured product. In this paper we deal with samples made of conventional tool steel – Sverker 21 (X153CrMoV12) and powder metallurgy (P/M) tool steel – Vanadis 6. Complete investigations of product properties are impossible to perform (because of constraints related to their cost, time, or lack of suitable equipment). Looking for a global, all-embracing quality indicator it was found that the correlation function and the frequency analysis of burnished surface give useful information for controlling the manufacturing process and evaluating the product quality. We propose three new indicators of burnishing surface quality. Their properties and usefulness are verified with the laboratory measurement of material samples made of the two mentioned kinds of tool steel.
Effects of various friction stir processing (FSP) variables on the microstructural evolution and microhardness of the AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated. The processing variables include rotational and travelling speed of the tool, kind of second phase (i.e., diamond, Al2O3, and ZrO2) and groove depth (i.e., volume fraction of second phase). Grain size, distribution of second phase particle, grain texture, and microhardness were analyzed as a function of the FSP process variables. The FSPed AZ31 composites fabricated with a high heat input condition showed the better dispersion of particle without macro defect. For all composite specimens, the grain size decreased and the microhardness increased regardless of the grooved depth compared with that of the FSPed AZ31 without strengthening particle, respectively. For the AZ31/diamond composite having a grain size of about 1 μm, microhardness (i.e., about 108 Hv) was about two times higher than that of the matrix alloy (i.e., about 52 Hv). The effect of second phase particle on retardation of grain growth and resulting hardness increase was discussed.