The work presents the results of the studies of Co-Cr-Mo casting alloys used in the production of frame casts of removable dentures, crowns and bridges in dental prosthetics. The studies were performed on four Co-Cr-Mo alloys of different contents of Mo, W and other additives. Electrochemical tests were performed, which aimed at examining the corrosion resistance of the alloys and observing the alloy structure after chronoamperometric tests with the potential in the area of the occurrence of the passive layer breakpoint. The alloy microstructure images after chronoamperometric tests show the presence of non-uniformly distributed general corrosion. Moreover, a project of cobalt alloy casting was elaborated using a ceramic mold casting. Additionally, analysis of the obtained microstructure was performed. The microstructure of the examined alloys was of the dendrite type. This microstructure was chemically inhomogeneous and consisted of an austenitic matrix formed by a solid cobalt solution and chromium in the core dendritic structure.
The study discusses the issues connected with the production of thin-walled ceramic slurry in the replicast cs technology. In the ceramic mould production process, a special role is played by the liquid ceramic slurry used to produce the first layer of the mould. The study examines selected technological properties of liquid ceramic slurries used to produce moulds in the replicas cs technology. The ceramic slurries for the tests were prepared based on the binders Ludox Px30 and Sizol 030, enriched with Refracourse flour. The wettability of the pattern's surface by the liquid ceramic slurry and the dependence of the apparent viscosity on the ceramic flour content in the mixture were determined. The wettability of the pattern surface by the liquid ceramic slurry was determined based on the measurement of the wetting angle. The angle was determined by means of an analysis of the computer image obtained with the use of a CDC camera.
The new investigation method of a permeability of ceramic moulds applied in the investment casting technology, is presented in the paper. Some concepts of performing permeability measurements are shown. Investigations in which the influence of the solid phase fraction in the liquid ceramic moulding sand (LCMS) on a permeability of a multi-layer ceramic mould were performed and discussed. The permeability was estimated during two the most important stages of the technological process: in the first – after wax melting and in the second – after mould annealing. Also an influence of the matrix grain sizes (material for sprinkling) on a ceramic mould permeability was estimated.
The investigation results of the kinetics of binding ceramic moulds, in dependence on the solid phase content in the liquid ceramic slurries being 67, 68 and 69% - respectively, made on the basis of the aqueous binding agents Ludox AM and SK. The ultrasonic method was used for assessing the kinetics of strengthening of the multilayer ceramic mould. Due to this method, it is possible to determine the ceramic mould strength at individual stages of its production. Currently self-supporting moulds, which must have the relevant strength during pouring with liquid metal, are mainly produced. A few various factors influence this mould strength. One of them is the ceramic slurry viscosity, which influences a thickness of individual layers deposited on the wax model in the investment casting technology. Depositing of layers causes increasing the total mould thickness. Therefore, it is important to determine the drying time of each deposited layer in order to prevent the mould cracking due to insufficient drying of layers and thus the weakening of the multilayer mould structure.
During excavation of the cremation cemetery of urnfield culture in Legnica at Spokojna Street (Lower Silesia, Poland), dated to 1100-700 BC, the largest - so far in Poland – a collection of casting moulds from the Bronze Age was discovered: three moulds for axes casting made out of stone and five moulds for casting sickles, razors, spearhead and chisels, made out of clay. This archaeological find constituted fittings of foundrymen’s graves. In order to perform the complete analysis of moulds in respect of their application in the Bronze Age casting technology analytical methods, as well as, computer aided methods of technological processes were used. Macroscopic investigations were performed and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method was used to analyse the chemical composition and metal elements content in mould cavities. Moulds were subjected to three-dimensional scanning and due to the reverse engineering the geometry of castings produced in these moulds were obtained. The gathered data was used to perform design and research works by means of the MAGMA5 software. Various variants of the pouring process and alloys solidification in these archaeological moulds were simulated. The obtained results were utilised in the interpretation of the Bronze Age casting production in stone and clay moulds, with regard to their quality and possibility of casting defects occurrence being the result of these moulds construction. The reverse engineering, modelling and computer simulation allowed the analysis of moulds and castings. Investigations of casting moulds together with their digitalisation and reconstruction of casting technology, confirm the high advancement degree of production processes in the Bronze Age.