The paper presents results of a study concerning an AlSi7Mg alloy and the effect of subjecting the liquid metal to four different processes: conventional refining with hexachloroethane; the same refining followed by modification with titanium, boron, and sodium; refining by purging with argon carried out in parallel with modification with titanium and boron salts and strontium; and parallel refining with argon and modification with titanium, boron, and sodium salts. The effect of these four processes on compactness of the material, parameters of microstructure, and fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg alloy after heat treatment. It has been found that the highest compactness (the lowest porosity ratio value) and the most favorable values of the examined parameters of microstructure were demonstrated by the alloy obtained with the use of the process including parallel purging with argon and modification with salts of titanium, boron, and sodium. It has been found that in the fatigue cracking process observed in all the four variants of the liquid metal treatment, the crucial role in initiation of fatigue cracks was played by porosity. Application of the process consisting in refining by purging with argon parallel to modification with Ti, B, and Na salts allowed to refine the microstructure and reduce significantly porosity of the alloy extending thus the time of initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. The ultimate effect consisted in a distinct increase of the fatigue limit value.
Monitoring the solidification process is of great importance for understanding the quality of the melt, for controlling it, and for predicting the true properties of the alloy. Solidification is accompanied by the development of heat, the magnitude of which depends on the different phases occurring during solidification. Thermal analysis is now an important part of and tool for quality control, especially when using secondary aluminium alloys in the automotive industry. The effect of remelting on the change of crystallization of individual structural components of experimental AlSi9Cu3 alloy was determined by evaluation of cooling curves and their first derivatives. Structural analysis was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. The effect of remelting was manifested especially in nucleation of phases rich in iron and copper. An increasing number of remelts had a negative effect after the fourth remelting, when harmful iron phases appeared in the structure in much larger dimensions.
In this study, metal matrix composite materials containing melt-spun Al-20Si-5Fe alloys and boron carbide was produced by high energy ball milling and then hot pressing at 200 MPa pressure and 450°C. Mechanical and microstructural characterizations were performed by using an optical microscopy, X-Ray diffractometer, and dynamic microhardness tester. It was observed that boron carbide particles were homogenously distributed in the microstructure and values of microhardness and elastic modules were averagely 830 MPa and 42 GPa, respectively.
The purpose of this study is to identify relationships between the values of the fluidity obtained by computer simulation and by an experimental test in the horizontal three-channel mould designed in accordance with the Measurement Systems Analysis. Al-Si alloy was a model material. The factors affecting the fluidity varied in following ranges: Si content 5 wt.% – 12 wt.%, Fe content 0.15 wt.% – 0.3wt. %, the pouring temperature 605°C-830°C, and the pouring speed 100 g · s–1 – 400 g · s–1. The software NovaFlow&Solid was used for simulations. The statistically significant difference between the value of fluidity calculated by the equation and obtained by experiment was not found. This design simplifies the calculation of the capability of the measurement process of the fluidity with full replacement of experiments by calculation, using regression equation.
This paper considers the assessment of attenuation in aluminium alloys castings and in cast iron prepared by gravity casting method and by casting under pressure. The issue of ultrasound attenuation is important in setting the conditions of non-destructive (NDT) testing, especially in casted materials. The characteristics of the ultrasonic technique and ultrasonic attenuation and the calculation of the attenuation and the velocity of ultrasound are presented in the theoretical part of this paper. For experimental measurements, cylindrical castings from AlSi alloy (a hypoeutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 7% - AlSi7 and a eutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 12% - AlSi12) and from grey and ductile cast iron were made. The ultrasonic records of the casting control, the calculation of ultrasound attenuation for individual samples are listed and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of measurements and comparison of calculated ultrasound attenuation is at the end of this article.
The paper presents an analysis of the effect of shape of primary silicon crystals on the sizes of stresses and deformations in a surface layer of A390.0 alloy by Finite Elements Method (FEM). Analysis of stereological characteristics of the studied alloy, performed based on a quantitative metallographic analysis in combination with a statistical analysis, was used for this purpose. The presented simulation tests showed not only the deposition depth of maximum stresses and strains, but also allowed for determining the aforementioned values depending on the shape of the silicon crystals. The studied material is intended for pistons of internal combustion engines, therefore the analysis of the surface layer corresponded to conditions during friction in a piston-cylinder system of an internal combustion engine having power of up to 100 kW. The obtained results showed important differences in the values of stresses and strains up to 15% between various shape of the silicon crystals. Crystals with sharp edges caused higher stresses and deformation locally than those with rounded shapes.
In the dissertation it has been shown, that so called “time-thermal treatment” (TTT) of the alloy in liquid state as overheating the metal with around 250o C above Tliq. and detailing it in temperature for 30 to 40 minutes has the influence on changing the crystallization parameters (Tliq., TEmin. , TEmax., TE(Me), TSol.). It was ascertained, that overheating the AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy substantially above Tliq. results with microcrystalline structure. Evenly distributed in the eutectic warp primeval silicon crystals and supersaturated with alloying additives of base content (Cu, Mg, Fe) of α(Al) solution, ensures not only increase durability in ambient temperature, but also at elevated temperature (250o C), what due to it’s use in car industry is an advantage.
The chosen, typical causes of quality defects of cast-iron „alphin” rings embedded in aluminum cast are being presented in this paper. Diffusive joint of those inserts with the pistons casts is being used, due to extreme work conditions of destructive influence of the fuel mix and variable thermo-mechanical loads, which reign in the combustion motor working chamber.
The paper presents the influence of modification with phosphorus (CuP10) on the tribological properties of the alloy AlSi17Cu5Mg coupled abrasively with cast-iron EN GJL-350. Tests of coefficient of friction and wear of mass were conducted on tribological tester T-01. An important aspect in the assessment of the tribological properties is the analysis of initial material microstructure in reference to silumin which underwent modification with phosphorus. It was found that the difference in structure of tested materials, mainly sizes of primary silicon crystals significantly influences the tribological properties whereas the speed change of the friction knot does not have such big influence.
Paper present a thermal analysis of laser heating and remelting of EN AC-48000 (EN AC-AlSi12CuNiMg) cast alloy used mainly for casting pistons of internal combustion engines. Laser optics were arranged such that the impingement spot size on the material was a circular with beam radius rb changes from 7 to 1500 m. The laser surface remelting was performed under argon flow. The resulting temperature distribution, cooling rate distribution, temperature gradients and the depth of remelting are related to the laser power density and scanning velocity. The formation of microstructure during solidification after laser surface remelting of tested alloy was explained. Laser treatment of alloy tests were perform by changing the three parameters: the power of the laser beam, radius and crystallization rate. The laser surface remelting needs the selection such selection of the parameters, which leads to a significant disintegration of the structure. This method is able to increase surface hardness, for example in layered castings used for pistons in automotive engines.
Casting porosity is the main factor influencing the fatigue properties of Al-Si alloys. Due to the increasing use of aluminum castings, porosity characterization is useful for estimating their fatigue strength. In principle, a combination of metallographic techniques and statistical pore analysis is a suitable approach for predicting the largest defect size that is critical for the casting. Here, the influence of modifiers and casting technology on the largest pore size population in AlSi7Mg alloy specimens is obtained and discussed adopting the Murakami's approach. However, porosity evaluation is a challenge in the case of microshrinkage pores, which are frequently found in industrial castings. Their complicated morphology prevents a reliable definition of an equivalent defect size based on metallographic techniques. This contribution reports the application of X-ray tomography to the 3D reconstruction of real pores in cast Al-Si alloys and provides insight into the complication of microshrinkage pore sizing by metallography.
This article deals with the effect of manganese that is the most applied element to eliminate the negative effect of iron in the investigated alloy AlSi7Mg0.3. In this time are several methods that are used for elimination harmful effect of iron. The most used method is elimination by applying the additive elements, so-called iron correctors. The influence of manganese on the morphology of excluded ironbased intermetallic phases was analysed at various iron contents (0.4; 0.8 and 1.2 wt. %). The effect of manganese was assessed in additions of 0.1; 0.2; 0.4 and 0.6 wt. % Mn. The morphology of iron intermetallic phases was assessed using electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX analysis. The increase of iron content in investigated alloys caused the formation of more intermetallic phases and this effect has been more significant with higher concentrations of manganese. The measurements carried out also showed that alloys with the same Mn/Fe ratio can manifest different structures and characteristics of excluded iron-based intermetallic phases, which might, at the same time, be related to different resulting mechanical properties.
The present work discusses results of increased temperature on shape-dimensional changes of a 110 type hose coupling, produced from EN AC-AlSi11 alloy with the use of pressure die casting technology. The castings were soaked for 3.5 h at temperatures 460°C, 475°C and 490°C. The verification of shape-dimensional accuracy of the elements after soaking treatment, in relation to raw casting, was carried out by comparing the 3D models received from 3D scanning. Soaking temperature of about 460°C-475°C results in no significant changes in the shapes and dimensions of the castings, or surface defects in the form of blisters, which can be seen at a temperature of 490°C.
Trace elements Co, Cr were added to investigate their influence on the microstructure and physical properties of Al-Si extruded alloy. The Co, Cr elements were randomly distributed in the matrix, forms intermetallic phase and their existence were confirmed by XRD, EDS and SEM analysis. With addition of trace elements, the microstructure was modified, Si particle size was reduced and the growth rate of β-(Al5FeSi) phase limited. Compared to parent alloy, hardness and tensile strength were enhanced while the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) was significantly reduced by 42.4% and 16.05% with Co and Cr addition respectively. It is considered that the low CTE occurs with addition of Co was due to the formation of intermetallic compound having low coefficient of thermal expansion. The results suggested that Co acts as an effective element in improving the mechanical properties of Al-Si alloy.
Nowadays, the most popular production method for manufacturing high quality casts of aluminium alloys is the hot and cold chamber die casting. Die casts made of hypereutectoid silumin Silafont 36 AlSi9Mg are used for construction elements in the automotive industry. The influence of the metal input and circulating scrap proportion on porosity and mechanical properties of the cast has been examined and the results have been shown in this article. A little porosity in samples has not influenced the details strength and the addition of the circulating scrap has contributed to the growth of the maximum tensile force. Introducing 80% of the circulating scrap has caused great porosity which led to reduce the strength of the detail. The proportion of 40% of the metal input and 60% of the circulating scrap is a configuration safe for the details quality in terms of porosity and mechanical strength.
The study presents the results of the application of a statistical analysis for the evaluation of the effect of high-melting additions introduced into a pressure cast Al-Si alloy on the obtained level of its proof stress Rp0.2. The base Al-Si alloy used for the tests was a typical alloy used for pressure casting grade EN AC-46000. The base alloy was enriched with high-melting additions, such as: Cr, Mo, V and W. The additions were introduced into the base Al-Si alloy in all the possible combinations. The content of the particular high-melting addition in the Al-Si alloy was within the scope of 0.05 to 0.50%. The investigations were performed on both the base alloy and alloy with the high-melting element additions. Within the implementation of the studies, the values of Rp0.2 were determined for all the considered chemical compositions of the Al-Si alloy. A database was created for the statistical analysis, containing the independent variables (chemical composition data) and dependent variables (examined Rp0.2 values). The performed statistical analysis aimed at determining whether the examined high-melting additions had a significant effect on the level of Rp0.2 of the Al-Si alloy as well as optimizing their contents in order to obtain the highest values of the Al-Si alloy's proof stress Rp0.2. The analyses showed that each considered high-melting addition introduced into the Al-Si alloy in a proper amount can cause an increase of the proof stress Rp0.2 of the alloy, and the optimal content of each examined high-melting addition in respect of the highest obtained value of Rp0.2 equals 0.05%.
In the dissertation it has been shown, that so called „time-thermal treatment” (TTT) of the alloy in liquid state, as overheating the metal with around 250o C above the Tliq. and detaining it in this temperature for around 30 minutes, improves the mechanical properties (HB, Rm, R0,2). It was ascertained, that overheating the AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy aids the modification, resulting with microcrystalline structure. Uniform arrangement of the Si primeval crystals in the warp, and α(Al) solution type, supersaturated with alloying elements present in the base content (Cu, Mg) assures not only increased durability in the ambient temperature, but also at elevated temperature (250o C), what is an advantage, especially due to the use in car industry.
The paper presents tribological properties of A390.0 (AlSi17Cu5Mg) alloy coupled in abrasive action with EN-GJL-350 grey cast-iron. The silumin was prepared with the use of two different technologies which differed in terms of cooling speed. In the first case the alloy was modified with foundry alloy CuP10 and cast to a standard tester ATD and in case of second option the modified alloy was cast into steel casting die. Due to different speed of heat removal the silumins varied in structure, particularly with size of primary crystals of silicon and their distribution in matrix which had a significant influence of friction coefficient in conditions of dry friction.
The paper presents the results of studies on the effect of the AlSi17Cu5 alloy overheating to atemperature of 920°C and modification with phosphorus (CuP10) on the resultingmechanical (HB, Rm, R0.2) and plastic (A5 and Z) properties. It has been shown that, so-called, "timethermal treatment" (TTT) of an alloy in the liquid state, consisting inoverheating the metal to about 250°C above Tliq,holding at this temperature by 30 minutes improvesthe mechanical properties. It has also been found that overheating of alloy above Tliq.enhances the process of modification, resulting in the formation of fine-grain structure. The primary silicon crystals uniformly distributed in the eutectic and characteristics ofthe α(Al) solution supersaturated with alloying elements present in the starting alloy composition (Cu, Fe) provide not only an increase of strength at ambient temperature but also at elevated temperature (250°C).
With the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the characteristic temperatures and enthalpy of phase transformations were defined for commercial AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy (EN AC-46000) that is being used for example for pressurized castings for automotive industry. During the heating with the speed of 10oCmin-1 two endothermic effects has been observed. The first appears at the temperature between 495 oC and 534 oC, and the other between 555 oC and 631 oC. With these reactions the phase transformation enthalpy comes up as +6 J g-1 and +327 J g-1 . During the cooling with the same speed, three endothermic reactions were observed at the temperatures between 584 oC and 471 oC. The total enthalpy of the transitions is – 348 J g-1 . Complimentary to the calorimetric research, the structural tests (SEM and EDX) were conducted on light microscope Reichert and on scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200. As it comes out of that, there are dendrites in the structure of α(Al) solution, as well as the eutectic (β) silicon crystals, and two types of eutectic mixture: double eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and compound eutectic α+Al2Cu+β.
Tests concerning EN AC 48000 (AlSi12CuNiMg) alloy phase transition covered (ATD) thermal analysis and (DSC) differential scanning calorimetry specifying characteristic temperatures and enthalpy of transformations. ATD thermal analysis shows that during cooling there exist: pre-eutectic crystallization effect of Al9Fe2Si phase, double eutectic and crystallization α(Al)+β(Si) and multi-component eutectic crystallization. During heating, DSC curve showed endothermic effect connected with melting of the eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and phases: Al2Cu, Al3Ni, Mg2Si and Al9Fe2Si being its components. The enthalpy of this transformation constitutes approx. +392 J g-1 . During freezing of the alloy, DSC curve showed two exothermal reactions. One is most likely connected with crystallization of Al9Fe2Si phase and the second one comes from freezing of the eutectic α(Al)+β(Si). The enthalpy of this transformation constitutes approx. –340 J g-1 . Calorimetric test was accompanied by structural test (SEM) conducted with the use of optical microscope Reichert and scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200. There occurred solution's dendrites α(Al), eutectic silicon crystal (β) and two types of eutectic solution: double eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and multi-component eutectic α+AlSiCuNiMg+β.
In the dissertation the data modeling has been shown for the data that regards the damages, which value is above zero. With the use of Weibull distribution, with prior regression and correlation analysis chosen parameters that defines the life time and failure level of two populations of AlSi17Cu5 were defined. The calculation sheet of reliability allows to create so called survival diagram, and on the basis of durability data the average warrantee can be determined, on the pre-exploitation period.