The aim of presented studies was to develop a new geometry of the overflow part of standard ATD–C tester for derivative thermal analysis in a way that it would allow to obtain samples for abrasion and mechanical properties tests in the same mould without the need of cutting them from a block of material. The pattern of new ATD–P tester has parts reflecting implemented samples. Computer simulations regarding initial verification of new tester were performed in NovaFlow software. Chromium cast iron melts were made for testing the sampler in real conditions and TDA analysis for casting material were conducted. The sandmix was prepared on silica sand matrix per the ALPHASET technology. This new solution greatly simplifies the preparations of materials difficult to machine.
Improvement of Al-Si alloys properties in scope of classic method is connected with change of Si precipitations morphology through: using modification of the alloy, maintaining suitable temperature of overheating and pouring process, as well as perfection of heat treatment methods. Growing requirements of the market make it necessary to search after such procedures, which would quickly deliver positive results with simultaneous consideration of economic aspects. Presented in the paper shortened heat treatment with soaking of the alloy at temperature near temperature of solidus could be assumed as the method in the above mentioned understanding of the problem. Such treatment consists in soaking of the alloy to temperature of solutioning, keeping in such temperature, and next, quick quenching in water (20 0 C) followed by artificial ageing. Temperature ranges of solutioning and ageing treatments implemented in the adopted testing plan were based on analysis of recorded curves from the ATD method. Obtained results relate to dependencies and spatial diagrams describing effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on HB hardness of the investigated alloy and change of its microstructure. Performed shortened heat treatment results in precipitation hardening of the investigated 320.0 alloy, what according to expectations produces increased hardness of the material.
Mechanical and technological properties of castings made from 3xx.x alloys depend mainly on properly performed process of melting and casting, structure of a casting and mould, as well as possible heat treatment. Precipitation processes occurring during the heat treatment of the silumins containing additives of Cu and/or Mg have effect on improvement of mechanical properties of the material, while choice of parameters of solutioning and ageing treatments belongs to objectives of research work performed by a number of authors. Shortened heat treatment, which is presented in the paper assures suitable mechanical properties (Rm), and simultaneously doesn’t cause any increase of production costs of a given component due to long lasting operations of the solutioning and ageing. Results of the research concern effects of the solutioning and ageing parameters on the Rm tensile strength presented in form of the second degree polynomial and illustrated in spatial diagrams. Performed shortened heat treatment results in considerable increase of the Rm tensile strength of the 320.0 alloy as early as after 1 hour of the solutioning and 2 hours of the ageing performed in suitable.
Heat treatment of a casting elements poured from silumins belongs to technological processes aimed mainly at change of their mechanical properties in solid state, inducing predetermined structural changes, which are based on precipitation processes (structural strengthening of the material), being a derivative of temperature and duration of solutioning and ageing operations. The subject-matter of this paper is the issue concerning implementation of a heat treatment process, basing on selection of dispersion hardening parameters to assure improvement of technological quality in terms of mechanical properties of a clamping element of energy network suspension, poured from hypoeutectic silumin of the LM25 brand; performed on the basis of experimental research program with use of the ATD method, serving to determination of temperature range of solutioning and ageing treatments. The heat treatment performed in laboratory conditions on a component of energy network suspension has enabled increase of the tensile strength Rm and the hardness HB with about 60-70% comparing to the casting without the heat treatment, when the casting was solutioned at temperature 520 o C for 1 hour and aged at temperature 165 o C during 3 hours.
To the main advantages of magnesium alloys belongs their low density, and just because of such property the alloys are used in aviation and rocket structures, and in all other applications, where mass of products have significant importance for conditions of their operation. To additional advantages of the magnesium alloys belongs good corrosion resistance, par with or even surpassing aluminum alloys. Magnesium is the lightest of all the engineering metals, having a density of 1.74 g/cm3 . It is 35% lighter than aluminum (2.7 g/cm3 ) and over four times lighter than steel (7.86 g/cm3 ). The Mg-Li alloys belong to a light-weight metallic structural materials having mass density of 1.35-1.65 g/cm3 , what means they are two times lighter than aluminum alloys. Such value of mass density means that density of these alloys is comparable with density of plastics used as structural materials, and therefore Mg–Li alloys belong to the lightest of all metal alloys. In the present paper are discussed melting and crystallization processes of ultra-light weight MgLi12,5 alloys recorded with use of ATND methods. Investigated magnesium alloy was produced in Krakow Foundry Research Institute on experimental stand to melting and casting of ultra-light weight alloys. Obtained test results in form of recorded curves from ATND methods have enabled determination of characteristic temperatures of phase transitions of the investigated alloy.
The most important parameters which predetermine mechanical properties of a material in aspects of suitability for castings to machinery components are: tensile strength (Rm), elongation (A5, hardness (HB) and impact strength (KCV). Heat treatment of aluminum alloys is performed to increase mechanical properties of the alloys mainly. The paper comprises a testing work concerning effect of heat treatment process consisting of solution heat treatment and natural ageing on mechanical properties and structure of AlZn10Si7MgCu alloy moulded in metal moulds. Investigated alloy was melted in an electric resistance furnace. Run of crystallization was presented with use of thermal-derivative method (ATD). This method was also implemented to determination of heat treatment temperature ranges of the alloy. Performed investigations have enabled determination of heat treatment parameters’ range, which conditions suitable mechanical properties of the investigated alloy. Further investigations will be connected with determination of optimal parameters of T6 heat treatment of the investigated alloy and their effect on change of structure and mechanical/technological properties of the investigated alloy.
Today’s industry aims at such situation, where number of defective products, so called defects shall approach to zero. Therefore, one introduces a various changes in technology of production, introduces improvements which would help in accomplishment of this objective. Another important factor is introduction of different type of testing, which shall help in assessment which factor has significant effect on quantity of rejects, and which one could be neglected. Existence of casting rejects is unavoidable; therefore a new ideas, technologies and innovations are necessary in the entire widely understood foundry branch, in order to minimize such adverse effect. Performance of tests aimed at unequivocal determination of an effect of vibrations during crystallization on mechanical properties and porosity of the EN ACAlSi17 alloy was the objective of the present work. To do this, there were produced 36 castings from EN AC-AlSi17 alloy. All the castings underwent machining operations. Half of the casting was destined to strength tests, the other half served to determination of an effect of vibrations on porosity of the alloy. The specimens were divided into 12 groups, depending on amplitude of vibrations and tilt angle of metal mould during pouring operation.
The paper presents the results of research on the impact of impurities in the feed ingots (master heat) on the precipitation of impurities in the ATD thermal analysis probe castings. This impurities occur mostly inside shrinkage cavities and in interdendritic space. Additionally, insufficient filtration of liquid alloy during pouring promotes the transfer of impurities into the casting. The technology of melting superalloys in vacuum furnace prevents the removal of slag from the surface of molten metal. Because of that, the effective method of quality assessment of feed ingots in order to evaluate the existence of impurities is needed. The effectiveness of ATD analysis in evaluation of purity of feed ingots was researched. In addition the similarities of non-metallic inclusions in feed ingots and in castings were observed.
With the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the characteristic temperatures and enthalpy of phase transformations were defined for commercial AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy (EN AC-46000) that is being used for example for pressurized castings for automotive industry. During the heating with the speed of 10oCmin-1 two endothermic effects has been observed. The first appears at the temperature between 495 oC and 534 oC, and the other between 555 oC and 631 oC. With these reactions the phase transformation enthalpy comes up as +6 J g-1 and +327 J g-1 . During the cooling with the same speed, three endothermic reactions were observed at the temperatures between 584 oC and 471 oC. The total enthalpy of the transitions is – 348 J g-1 . Complimentary to the calorimetric research, the structural tests (SEM and EDX) were conducted on light microscope Reichert and on scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200. As it comes out of that, there are dendrites in the structure of α(Al) solution, as well as the eutectic (β) silicon crystals, and two types of eutectic mixture: double eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and compound eutectic α+Al2Cu+β.
The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc.), which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines), it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.
The paper presents the results of studies on the development of correlation of solidification parameters and chemical composition of nickel superalloy IN-713C, which is used i.a. on aircraft engine turbine blades. Previous test results indicate significant differences in solidification parameters of the alloy, especially the temperatures Tliq and Tsol for each batch of ingots supplied by the manufacturer. Knowledge of such a relationship has important practical significance, because of the ability to asses and correct the temperatures of casting and heat treatment of casts on the basis of chemical composition. Using the statistical analysis it was found that the temperature of the solidification beginning Tliq is mostly influenced by the addition of carbon (similar to iron alloys). The additions of Al and Nb have smaller but still significant impact. Other alloying components do not have significant effect on Tliq. The temperature Teut is mostly affected by Ni, Ti and Nb. The temperature Tsol is not in any direct correlation with the chemical composition, which is consistent with previous research. The temperature Tsol depends primarily on the presence of non-metallic inclusions present in feed materials and introduced during the melting and casting processes.
Paper presents the results of ATD and DSC analysis of two superalloys used in casting of aircraft engine parts. The main aim of the research was to obtain the solidification parameters, especially Tsol and Tliq, knowledge of which is important for proper selection of casting and heat treatment parameters. Assessment of the metallurgical quality (presence of impurities) of the feed ingots is also a very important step in production of castings. It was found that some of the feed ingots delivered by the superalloy producers are contaminated by oxides located in shrinkage defects. The ATD analysis allows for quite precise interpretation of first stages of solidification at which solid phases with low values of latent heat of solidification are formed from the liquid. Using DSC analysis it is possible to measure precisely the heat values accompanying the phase changes during cooling and heating which, with knowledge of phase composition, permits to calculate the enthalpy of formation of specific phases like γ or γ′.