When we mention mushrooms, our minds generally turn to grilled champignons for breakfast or gnomes lurking under toadstools. But the taxonomical kingdom to which they belong, the fungi, is actually vast and highly diverse: over one hundred thousand species have been described so far, and scientists estimate that the real number could be as much as fifty times greater. Some fungi have even taken a liking to aviation fuel!
The potential of ﬁve plants namely Atriplex halimus L., A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt., Suaeda fruticosa (Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel.), Marrubium vulgare L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter from two selected wetlands in northwest Algeria subjected to house and industrial efﬂuents were examined to assess their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) diversity and colonization, as well as to determine their tolerance and ability in accumulating metallic trace elements (MTEs). The purpose was to investigate whether, or not, these fungi are related to metallic uptake. Arbuscular mycorrhizal association was observed in all plant species, since the dual association between AMF and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was found in roots of 80% plants species. Hence, the decreasing trend of metal accumulation in most plant organs was Zn>Cu>Pb, and the most efﬁ cient species were M. vulgare> S. fruticosa> A. canescens> D. viscosa> A. halimus. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) and the transport factors indicated that all these species were phytoremediators. Pearson correlation showed that Cd bioaccumulation and translocation were inhibited by AMF infection; meanwhile Zn, Pb and Cd accumulation were affected by AMF spore density and species richness, DSE frequency, pH, AMF and plant host. Native halophytes showed a multi-metallic resistance capacity in polluted wetlands. M. vulgare was the most efﬁcient in metal accumulation and the best host for mycorrhizal fungi. AMF played a major role in metal accumulation and translocation.
Mycological analyses of the air and food remnants in heated and non-heated rooms of the H. Arctowski Polar Station were carried out. In the material 23 fungi strains were found representing 10 species of the classes Ascomycetes, Zygomycetes and Deuteromycetes.
This paper reports on 29 species of lichenicolous fungi collected in the Hornsund region and Sørkapp Land area, Spitsbergen. New to science are Hystrix gen. nov., Slellifraga gen. nov., Dactylospora cladoniicola sp. nov., Hystrix peltigericola sp. nov., Stellifraga cladoniicola sp. nov. and Zwackhiomyces macrosporus sp. nov. A further 15 species are new to Svalbard.
The present contribution to lichen−forming and lichenicolous biota of northern− most Billefjörden (Petuniabukta area, central Spitsbergen, Svalbard) contains 40 species of lichens. Four species: Arthonia ligniariella, Candelariella lutella, Ochrolechia upsaliensis, Polyblastia pernigrata are new for the Svalbard Archipelago.
Saprotrophic filamentous microfungi were isolated by means of the soil dilution method from soil samples collected from four locations in the Bellsund region of Spitsbergen (77°33’N, 14°31’E) representing the following forms of surface micro-relief: an old stormbank, a sorted circle, a frost fissure between tundra polygons, and the central part of a tundra polygon. The fungal isolates were identified and screened for their ability to grow at low temperatures. The oligotrophy of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic strains was then determined as the ability of growth on silica gel without a C source added. Differences in some physico-chemical properties were found between the soils sampled from the four sites. A total of 89 taxa from 17 genera were isolated. Most of the isolates were species of Mortierella, Penicillium, Chrysosporium and Phialophora, and half of them were psychrophiles. Fungal communities isolated from a frost fissure between tundra polygons (site 3) and from the central part of a tundra polygon (site 4) were dominated by psychrophiles but those isolated from an old stormbank (site 1) and a sorted circle (site 2) were predominantly psychrotrophic. Oligopsychrophilic taxa accounted for 27% and oligopsychrotrophic for 20% of all the isolated taxa but only from 0.7% to 11.7% and from 1.2% to 6.3% of the total number of cfu (colony forming unit) isolated from an individual site, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that the abundance of fungi in Arctic soil is mostly affected by the content of organic matter in the A horizon and the plant cover, but other factors, such as the stage of soil development and the micro-relief of the surface, are more important for species richness of fungal communities.
Formerly reported as maritime Antarctic Bacidia sp. A has been re-named here as B. chrysocolla Olech, Czarnota et Llop. Another new species, B. subcoprodes Olech et Czarnota, found in the continental and maritime Antarctic has also been described here. A placement of both taxa within Bacidia De Not. is probably tentative because they are not congeneric with the type of this genus, B. rosella (Pers.) De Not. Similarities to other Bacidia with Laurocerasi-brown hypothecium and mostly 3-septate ascospores are discussed.
A lichenicolous fungus, Dactylospora dobrowolskii Olech et Alstrup, new to science is described. The paper reports on 9 species of lichens and lichenicolous fungi collected in the Bunger Oasis (East Antarctica).
Information on lichens of Franz Josef Land is summarized based on original and literature data. Two hundred twenty nine lichen species are documented, of which 59 species and two varieties are newly reported for this territory. This represents only 13% of the Arctic lichen flora richness. We have found 28 rare lichen species in the archipelago and recommend to include 9 species in the Red Data Book of the Arkhangelsk Region of Russia.