Experimental observations of the steel morphology as well as measurements of the solutes concentration in the macro-scale were made on the basis of the vertical cut at the mid-depth of the 15-tons steel forging ingot serially produced in one of the steel plant in Poland. Experimental observations of the morphology accompanied by the measurements of the Peclet Number were also made on the cross-section of the continuously cast brass ingots serially produced in the copper / brass industry in Poland. The performed measurements allowed to work out some maps of the alloying elements segregation for the longitudinal section of the steel static ingot and a Growth Law for the columnar grains formation in the brass ingots. The marginal stability criterion has been applied to the last mentioned development / description. Some suggestions for the micro-segregation measurement mode in the columnar structure are derived.
Coagulation and solidification of the copper droplets suspend in the liquid slag are usually accompanied by the appearance of the Cu-Cu2O eutectic. Locally, this eutectic is created in the stationary state. Therefore, frequently it has a directional morphology. Since the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti – eutectic is similar in the asymmetry of the phase diagram to the Cu-Cu2O – eutectic, the (Zn) single crystal strengthened by the E = (Zn) + Zn16Ti precipitate is subjected to directional growth by the Bridgman’s system and current analysis. Experimentally, the strengthening layers (stripes) are generated periodically in the (Zn) – single crystal as a result of the cyclical course of precipitation which accompanies the directional solidification. These layers evince diversified eutectic morphologies like irregular rods, regular lamellae, and regular rods. The L – shape rods of the Zn16Ti – intermetallic compound appear within the first range of the growth rates when the irregular eutectic structure is formed. Next, the branched rods transform into regular rods and subsequently the regular rods into regular lamellae transitions can be recorded. The regular lamellae exist only within a certain range of growth rates. Finally, the regular rods re-appear at some elevated growth rates. The entropy production per unit time and unit volume is calculated for the regular eutectic growth. It will allow to formulate the entropy production per unit time for both eutectic structure: rod-like and lamellar one.
The presented results of research on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic waste, depending on their initial depolymerisation in alkaline medium were considered in the context of the possibility of their further use in the fermentation media focused on the recovery of energy in the form of molecular hydrogen. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate dose and concentration of a chemical reagent, whose efficiency would be high enough to cause decomposition of the complex, but without an excessive production of by-products which could adversely affect the progress and effectiveness of the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The effect of treatment on physical-chemical changes of homogenates’ properties such as pH, COD, the concentration of monosaccharide and total sugars and the concentration of total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids was determined. The enzymatic decomposition of lignocellulosic complex was repeatedly more efficient if the sample homogenates were subjected to an initial exposure to NaOH. The degree of conversion of complex sugars into simple sugars during enzymatic hydrolysis of homogenates pre-alkalized to pH 11.5 and 12.0 was 83.3 and 84.2% respectively, which should be sufficient for efficient hydrogen fermentation process.
The suspension of copper droplets in the slag is considered. The copper/slug suspension is delivered as the product from the direct-toblister process which is applied in the KGHM – Polska Miedź (Polish Copper) S.A. factory. The droplets / slag suspension was treated by a special set of reagents (patented by the authors) to improve the coagulation process. On the other hand, the observations are made to estimate if the melting / reduction process in the furnace is sufficiently effective to avoid a remaining of carbon in the copper droplets. The coagulation process was carried out in the crucible (laboratory scale). However, conditions imposed to the coagulation / solidification process in the laboratory scale were to some extent similar to those applied usually in the industry when the suspension is subjected to the analogous treatment in the electric arc-furnace. Some suggestions are formulated how to improve the industrial direct-to-blister process.
This paper presents the idea of increasing the effectiveness of slag decopperisation in an electric furnace in the "Głogów II" Copper Smelter by replacing the currently added CaCO3with a less energy-intensive technological additive. As a result of this conversion, one may expect improved parameters of the process, including process time or power consumption per cycle. The incentives to optimize the process are the benefits of increasing copper production in the company and the growing global demand for this metal. The paper also describes other factors that may have a significant impact on the optimization of the copper production process. Based on the literature analysis, a solution has been developed that improves the copper production process. The benefits of using a new technology additive primarily include increased share of copper in the alloy, reduced production costs, reduced amount of power consumed per cycle and reduced time it takes to melt. At the conclusion of the paper, the issues raised are highlighted, stressing that mastering the slag slurry process in electric furnaces requires continuous improvement.
The post-processing slags containing about 0.8 wt.% of copper were subjected to the treatment of a complex reagent. The chemical composition of the complex reagent has been elaborated and patented in frame of the Grant No. PBS3/A5/45/2015. The slags had an industrial origin and were delivered by the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów, as a product of the direct-to-blister technology performed in the flash furnace assisted by the arc furnace. An agglomeration of copper droplets suspended in the liquid slag, their coagulation, and deposition on the bottom of furnace were observed after the treatment this post-processing slag by the mentioned reagent. The treatment of the post-processing slags by the complex reagent was performed in the arc furnace equipped with some additional electrodes situated at the furnace bottom (additional, in comparison with the arc furnace usually applied in the Smelter and Refinery Plant, Głogów). The behaviour of the copper droplets in the liquid slag within the competition between buoyancy force and gravity was studied from the viewpoint of the required deposition of coagulated copper droplets. The applied complex reagent improves sufficiently the surface free energy of the copper droplets. In the result, the mechanical equilibrium between coagulated copper droplets and surrounding liquid slag is properly modified. Eventually, sufficiently large copper droplets are subjected to a settlement on the furnace bottom according to the requirements. The agglomeration and coagulation of the copper droplets were significantly improved by an optimized tilting of the upper electrodes and even by their rotation. Moreover, the settlement was substantially facilitated and improved by the employment of both upper and lower system of electrodes with the simultaneous substitution of the variable current by the direct current.
Some metallographic studies performed on the basis of the massive forging steel static ingot, on its cross-section, allowed to reveal the following morphological zones: a/ columnar grains (treated as the austenite single crystals), b/ columnar into equiaxed grains transformation, c/ equiaxed grains at the ingot axis. These zones are reproduced theoretically by the numerical simulation. The simulation was based on the calculation of both temperature field in the solidifying large steel ingot and thermal gradient field obtained for the same boundary conditions. The detailed analysis of the velocity of the liquidus isotherm movement shows that the zone of columnar grains begins to disappear at the first point of inflection and the equiaxed grains are formed exclusively at the second point of inflection of the analyzed curve. In the case of the continuously cast brass ingots three different morphologies are revealed: a/ columnar structure, b/ columnar and equiaxed structure with the CET, and c/ columnar structure with the single crystal formation at the ingot axis. Some forecasts of the temperature field are proposed for these three revealed morphologies. An analysis / forecast of the behavior of the operating point in the mold is delivered for the continuously cast ingot. A characteristic delay between some points of breakage of the temperature profile recorded at the operating point and analogous phenomena in the solidifying alloy is postulated.
The suspension of the copper droplets in the post-processing slag taken directly from the KGHM-Polska Miedź S.A. Factory (from the direct-to-blister technology as performed in the flash furnace) was subjected to the special treatment with the use of the one of the typical industrial reagent and with the complex reagent newly patented by the authors. This treatment was performed in the BOLMET S.A. Company in the semi-industrial conditions. The result of the CaCO3, and Na2CO3 chemicals influence on the coagulation and subsequent sedimentation of copper droplets on the crucible bottom were subjected to comparison with the sedimentation forced by the mentioned complex reagent. The industrial chemicals promoted the agglomeration of copper droplets but the coagulation was arrested / blocked by the formation of the lead envelope. Therefore, buoyancy force forced the motion of the partially coagulated copper droplets towards the liquid slag surface rather than sedimentation on the crucible bottom. On the other hand, the complex reagent was able to influence the mechanical equilibrium between copper droplets and some particles of the liquid slag as well as improve the slag viscosity. Finally, the copper droplets coagulated successfully and generally, were subjected to a settlement on the crucible bottom as desired / requested.
There are two methods to produce primary copper: hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical. Copper concentrates, from which copper matte is melted, constitute the charge at melting primary copper in the pyrometallurgical process. This process consists of a few stages, of which the basic ones are roasting and smelting. Smelting process may be bath and flash. Slag from copper production, on the end of process contain less 0,8%. It is treat as a waste or used other field, but only in a few friction. The slag amount for waste management or storage equaled 11 741 – 16 011 million tons in 2011. This is a serious ecological problem. The following slags were investigated: slag originated from the primary copper production process in the flash furnace of the Outtokumpuja Company in HM Głogów 2 (Sample S2): the same slag after the copper removal performed according the up to now technology (Sample S1): slag originated from the primary copper production process in the flash furnace of the Outtokumpuja Company in HM Głogów 2, after the copper removal performed according the new technology (Sample S3). In practice, all tested slags satisfy the allowance criteria of storing on the dumping grounds of wastes other than hazardous and neutral.
Particles of the Fe-Al type (less than 50 µm in diameter) were sprayed onto the 045 steel substrate by means of the detonation method. The TEM, SAED and EDX analyses revealed that the Fe-Al particles have been partially melted in the experiment of coating formation. Particle undergone melting even within about 80% of its volume. Therefore, solidification of the melted part of particles was expected. Solidification differed significantly due to a large range of chemical composition of applied particles (from 15 at.% Al up to 63 at.% Al). A single particle containing 63 at.% Al was subjected to the detailed analysis, only. The TEM / SAED techniques revealed in the solidified part of particle three sub-layers: an amorphous phase, A ε , periodically situated FeAl + Fe2Al5 phases, and a non-equilibrium phase, Nε . A hypothesis dealing with the inter-metallic phases formation in such a single particle of the nominal composition 0 N = 0.63 is presented. At first, the solid / liquid system is treated as an interconnection: substrate liquid nonmelted particle part / / . Therefore, it is suggested that the solidification occurs simultaneously in two directions: towards a substrate and towards a non-melted part of particle. The solidification mechanism is referred to the Fe-Al meta-stable phase diagram. It is shown that the melted part of particle solidifies rapidly according to the phase diagram of meta-stable equilibrium and at a significant deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium.