Sub-bottom profiler (SBP) is an acoustic instrument commonly used to survey underwater shallow geological structure and embedded objects whose most important performance parameter is the actual vertical resolution. This paper presented a methodology to measure and evaluate the actual vertical resolution of SBP based on an experiment in an anechoic tank, which was divided into three components: building of artificial geological model, measurement of acoustic parameters, and determination of actual vertical resolution of the acoustic profiles. First, the wedge-shaped geological model, whose thickness could be accurately controlled, was designed and built in an anechoic tank to try to directly measure the vertical resolution of SBP. Then, the acoustic pulse width of SBP was measured to calculate the theoretical general vertical resolution and extreme vertical resolution. Finally, based on the acoustic profiles obtained in the experiment, the method which was used to evaluate the actual vertical resolution by measuring the duration of reflection event was put forward. Due to comparing measurement data of different parameter settings of the SBP, the study has revealed that the SBP had the lowest resolution in the 4 kHz–500 µs setting, which was 226.5 µs, or 36.2 cm, and the highest resolution in the 15 kHz–67 µs setting, which was 72.7 µs, or 11.6 cm. The vertical resolution decreased with the increase of the pulse width. The results also showed that the actual resolution was close to the theoretical general resolution and far from the extreme resolution.
Temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) method was used to obtain bulk Si continuously for the efficient separation and purification of primary Si from the Si-Al alloy in this work. The effects of alloy thickness, temperature gradient and holding time in TGZM purification technology were investigated. Finally, the continuous growth of bulk Si without eutectic inclusions was obtained. The results showed that the growth rate of bulk Si was independent of the liquid zone thickness. When the temperature gradient was changed from 2.48 K/mm to 3.97 K/mm, the growth rate of bulk Si was enhanced from 7.9×10–5 mm/s to 2.47×10–4 mm/s, which was increased by about 3 times. The bulk Si could grow continuously and the growth rate was decreased with the increase of holding time from 1 h to 5 h. Meanwhile, low refining temperature was beneficial to the removal of impurities. With a precipitation temperature of 1460 K and a temperature gradient of 2.48 K/mm, the removal rates of Fe, P and B were 99.8%, 94.0% and 63.6%, respectively.
Magnetic-geared permanent magnet (MGPM) electrical machine is a new type of machine by incorporating magnetic gear into PM electrical machine, and it may be in operation with low-speed, high-torque and direct-driven. In this paper, three types of MGPM machines are present, and a quantitative comparison among them is performed by finite element analysis (FEA). The magnetic field distribution, stable torque and back EMF are obtained at no-load. The results show that three types of MGPM machine are suitable for different application fields respectively according to their own advantages, such as high torque and back EMF, which form an important foundation for MGPM electrical machine research.
The data aggregation process of wireless sensor networks faces serious security problems. In order to defend the internal attacks launched by captured nodes and ensure the reliability of data aggregation, a secure data aggregation mechanism based on constrained supervision is proposed for wireless sensor network, which uses the advanced LEACH clustering method to select cluster heads. Then the cluster heads supervise the behaviors of cluster members and evaluate the trust values of nodes according to the communication behavior, data quality and residual energy. Then the node with the highest trust value is selected as the supervisor node to audit the cluster head and reject nodes with low trust values. Results show that the proposed mechanism can effectively identify the unreliable nodes, guarantee the system security and prolong the network lifetime.