The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the American and European population is estimated to be extremely high. Although fewer people today suff er from serious health problems related to calcium and phosphate metabolism resulting from vitamin D deficiency, there are more and more studies suggesting that calcitriol may play an important role in the pathogenesis of other diseases in virtually every body system. A growing body of research shows that through its ubiquitously expressed receptor, calcitriol displays potent anti-angiogenic an anti-inflammatory activity. Th is review summarizes recent discoveries regarding these non-classical eff ects of vitamin D and their clinical implications. Data collection focused on the prevention and treatment of ocular diseases as well as on the underlying mechanisms.
Background: Anorexia nervosa is a widely prevalent eating disorder that often leads to life-threatening complications. Since it mostly concerns females, many authors have focused on studying the reproductive system in anorexic women. Recently discovered telocytes may give a new insight into the pathophysiology of gynecological complications in these patients. Material and Methods: We adopted an animal model of anorexia nervosa induced by voluntary physical activity. Sixteen female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control and activity-based anorexia. When the weight loss of activity-based anorexia (ABA) rats reached 25% animals were euthanized. Size and weight measurements as well as histopathological analysis of the reproductive organs were performed. Additionally, we used immunohistochemical staining for detection of telocytes. Results: Telocytes were identified in uteri of anorectic rats but no diff erences were observed when compared to the control group. Nevertheless, in the ABA group the weight of the uteri and the number of follicles in the ovaries decreased significantly. Conclusions: Our rat model of anorexia nervosa mimics the effects of this eating disorder that occur in the female reproductive system since we reported ovarian dysfunction and uterine involution in the experimental animals. It supports its potential role in the further studies of anorexia pathophysiology and treatment possibilities.