Hydrogen (H2) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) sensing properties of SnO2 thin films obtained by direct oxidation of chemically deposited SnS films has been studied. The SnS film was prepared by a chemical technique called SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction). The sensor element comprises of a layer of chemically deposited SnO2 film with an overlayer of palladium (Pd) sensitiser. The Pd sensitiser layer was also formed following a chemical technique. The double layer element so formed shows significantly high sensitivity to H2 and LPG. The temperature variation of sensitivity was studied and the maximum sensitivity of 99.7% was observed at around 200°C for 1 vol% H2 in air. The response time to target gas was about 10 seconds and the sensor element was found to recover to its original resistance reasonably fast. The maximum sensitivity of 98% for 1.6 vol% LPG was observed at around 325°C. The sensor response and recovery was reasonably fast (less than one minute) at this temperature.
In the paper an approach to design of multipurpose control systems is considered. It is presented an universal and efficient algorithm for synthesis of multipurpose control system for proper, invertible and right-invertible multi-input multi-output dynamic (MIMO) plants which can be both unstable and/or non-minimumphase. The developed control systems feature both dynamic (either block or row-by-row) decoupling and arbitrary closed-loop pole placement and zero steady-state errors for regulation or tracking processes in presence of (non-diminishing) disturbances.
Production rates for various activities and overall construction project duration are significantly influenced by crew formation. Crews are composed of available renewable resources. Construction companies tend to reduce the number of permanent employees, which reduces fixed costs, but at the same time limits production capacity. Therefore, construction project planning must be carried out by means of scheduling methods which allow for resource constrains. Authors create a mathematical model for optimized scheduling of linear construction projects with consideration of resources and work continuity constraints. Proposed approach enables user to select optimal crew formation under limited resource supply. This minimizes project duration and improves renewable resource utilization in construction linear projects. This paper presents mixed integer linear programming to model this problem and uses a case study to illustrate it.
To improve mechanical properties and increasing useful life of metal pieces, different methods of welding are used for repairing surface crack of metal pieces. In this research, performance of flame welding method by spraying pure iron powder evaluated for repairing surface grooves of structural steel. First, four specimens including one control specimen and other three specimens grooved specimens in depth of 1mm and in length of 12.5mm and groove width in the sizes of 0.5, 0.75 and 1mm.were prepared then, powder melted using oxyacetylene reducing flame and spraying iron powder in the flame path and attached to the inner surface of the groove and finally, the specimen repaired. Results showed that after repairing surface groove, tensile strength of the repaired specimens were reached to the tensile strength of control specimen with the margin of 2.5%.
In wireless mobile networks, a client can move between different locations while staying connected to the network and access the remote server over the mobile networks by using their mobile de- vices at anytime and anywhere. However, the wireless network is more prone to some security attacks, as it does not have the ingrained physical security like wired networks. Thus, the client authentication is required while accessing the remote server through wireless network. Based on elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) and identity-based cryptography (IBC), Debiao et al. proposed an ID-based client authentication with key agreement scheme to reduce the computation and communication loads on the mobile devices. The scheme is suitable for mobile client-server environments, is secure against different attacks and provides mutual authentication with session key agreement between a client and the remote server as they claimed. Unfotunately, this paper demonstrates that Debiao et al.’s scheme is vulnerable some cryptographic attacks, and proposed an improved ID-based client authentication with key agreement scheme using ECC. The proposed scheme is secure based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) and Computational Diffie-Helmann Problem (CDHP). The detail analysis shows that our scheme overcomes the drawbacks of Debiao et al.’s scheme and achieves more functionality for the client authentication with lesser computational cost than other schemes.
A low power regenerative comparator is very useful in Successive Approximation Register (SAR) type Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) for a Wireless Sensor Node (WSN). A regenerative type comparator generates output pulses by comparing input with a reference input. This paper deals with control of a power with an adjustable duty cycle. The regenerative comparator with an adjustable duty cycle and a positive feedback of a latch will help in improving accuracy, speed and also in achieving the less power consumption. The optimum value of a duty cycle is determined with metastability timing constraints. The proposed low power regenerative comparator circuit is designed and simulated by using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology. The comparator consumes power as low as 298.54 nW with a regenerative time 264 ps at 1 V power supply.