The paper attempts to analyze distortions of cast iron and cast steel rings, after heat treatment cycles. The factors influencing distortion are: chemical composition of material, sample geometry, manufacturing process, hardenability, temperature and heat treatment method. Standard distortion tests are performed on C-ring samples. We selected a ring-model, which approximate the actual part, so that findings apply to gear rings. Because distortion depends on so many variables, this study followed strictly defined procedures. The research was started by specifying the appropriate geometry of the samples. Then, the heat treatment was conducted and samples were measured again. The obtained results allow to determine the value of the resulting distortion and their admissibility. The research will be used to evaluate the possibility of using the material to produce parts of equipment operated under extreme load conditions.
Image analysis allows to acquire a number of valuable quantitative informations on the observed structure and make appropriate conclusions. So far, a large part of analyzed images came only from light microscopes, where it was a possibility of accurately distinguish the different phases on the plane. However, the problem happened in the case of the observation of images obtained by scanning electron microscopy. In this case, the presence of various shades of gray, and the spaciousness of the image attained. To perform the analysis the matrix images of the ausferritic ductile iron were used. Full analysis was carried out using the computer program MicroMeter 1.03. Results obtained in the analysis were related directly to the results from X-ray diffraction. Obtained as a result of the analysis were related directly to the results from X-ray diffractometer. The following technique has weaknesses, including the misinterpretation by the operator microscope or program. After all, it was possible to obtain similar results to the result that has been obtained from X-ray diffractometer.
The paper presents the effect of pre-heat treatment on the mechanical properties of ductile cast iron with elevated content of Cu and Mo elements. Austempered Ductile Iron is a material with non-standard properties, combining high tensile strength and abrasion resistance with very good plasticity. In addition, it is prone to strain hardening and have good machining abilities. The study was conducted for five designed heat treatment cycles. The variables were the time and temperature of the pre-heat treatment, followed by one of two standard heat treatments for ADI cast iron. The aim of the authors was fragmentation of the grains of perlite during the initial heat treatment. It is presumed, that subsequent heat treatment will cause further refinement of the microstructure than would be the case without initial heat treatment. Diffusion is much faster than in case of ferritic matrix of cast iron. The results will be used to evaluate material for the production of parts of equipment that must operate under extreme load conditions.
The article describes the impact of germanium on the course of surface phenomena in casting alloys of silver used in gold smithing. The aim of this works is to describe the assessment of resulting alloys, comparing the area of raw castings and the impact of the addition content of the alloy on the hardness of the samples. The evaluation also was subject to corrosion resistance of giving a comparison of their use in relations to traditional silver alloys.