Kartografia jest dziedziną nauki określającą zasady tworzenia map, a także zgłębiającą możliwości wykorzystania ich treści. Ta definicja – choć w tym wypadku nie dotyczy Ziemi – idealnie odwzorowuje pracę zespołu VIPERS, w którego skład wchodzą również polscy astronomowie.
Cartography is the study and practice of making maps. Although originally defined for Earth, the term is also a perfect description of the aims of the VIPERS team, whose members include Polish astronomers.
The relatively limited application of lean in the food process industries has been attributed to the unique characteristics of the food sector i.e. short shelf-life, heterogeneous raw materials, and seasonality. Moreover, barriers such as large and inflexible machinery, long setup time, and resource complexity, has limited the implementation and impact of lean practices in process industries in general. Contrary to the expectations in the literature, we bring in this paper a successful experience of lean implementation in a company of the food-processing sector. By focusing on two lean tools (VSM and SMED), the company reduced changeover time by 34%, and increased the production capacity of the main production line by 11%. This improvement enabled the company to avoid the use of temporary workers by extending the worktime of its workforce during peak months. Moreover, the reduction of setup time avoided the use of large lot size in production, which, in turn, reduced the total cycle time of production and the incidence of quality problems.
Grounding electrode resistance non-linearly changes under impulse conditions due to soil ionisation phenomenon. Several models have been proposed to model soil ionisation for grounding electrodes applications. However, to date, there is yet an attempt made to compile all these works into a comprehensive review article. Therefore, this paper is written with the objective of summarizing all related works in this field as a one– stop reference. With reference to the literature, this paper is written to summarize the working principles of the soil ionisation models as well as the accuracy and performance analysis of the models. This paper, particularly highlights the deficiencies of the available models in terms of accuracy and performance. This knowledge will contribute to the development of a new accurate and efficient soil ionisation model.